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Casing and tubing strings are the main parts of the well construction. All wells drilled for the purpose of oil or gas production (or injecting materials into underground formations) must be cased with material with sufficient strength and functionality. Casing is the major structural component of a well. The cost of casing is a major part of the overall well cost, so selection of casing size, grade, connectors, and setting depth is a primary engineering and economic consideration. Conductor casing is the first string set below the structural casing (i.e., drive pipe or marine conductor run to protect loose near-surface formations and to enable circulation of drilling fluid).
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines simulate as assuming the appearance of without the reality. Simulation of petroleum reservoir performance refers to the construction and operation of a model whose behavior assumes the appearance of actual reservoir behavior. The model itself is either physical (for example, a laboratory sandpack) or mathematical. A mathematical model is a set of equations that, subject to certain assumptions, describes the physical processes active in the reservoir. Although the model itself obviously lacks the reality of the reservoir, the behavior of a valid model simulates--assumes the appearance of--the actual reservoir. The purpose of simulation is estimation of field performance (e.g., oil recovery) under one or more producing schemes. Whereas the field can be produced only once, at considerable expense, a model can be produced or run many times at low expense over a short period of time. Observation of model results that represent different producing ...
New Technique for Addressing SIMOPS Challenges During Installation of New Offshore Platform. Simultaneous Operations in Multi-Well Pad: a Cost Effective way of Drilling Multi Wells Pad and Deliver 8 Fracs a Day. The glossary is a living growing list of important E&P terms and require continual enhancements. If you would like to contribute to the glossary send an email to petrowiki(at)spe.org.
Perforating is a process used to establish a flow path between the near reservoir and the wellbore. It normally involves initiating a hole from the wellbore through the casing and any cement sheath into the producing zone. Bullet guns were the first commercial perforating devices. A hardened steel bullet was fired from a short-barrel gun powered by a gas-producing explosive. These guns first saw commercial use in the early 1930s.
As with most technology, proper candidate selection is key to success. The economics are often determined by the number of and locations of the wells and by the overall geographical development plan. It is important to recognize that downhole processing is not a substitute for prudent profile control of wells through workovers, gel polymer treatments, cement squeezes, and so on. The following discussion applies to both gas/liquid and water/oil processing, followed by sections that discuss screening criteria specific to each. From an equipment standpoint, gas/liquid separation is much easier than oil/water separation. This generally means that it is a more robust application. All separation and pump equipment has an expected lifetime that is typically much shorter than the lifetime of the well. The cost of replacing or repairing the equipment must be considered as well as the initial capital cost.
A leading cause of unsuccessful acid treatment is failure to contact all the damage with the acid. Fluids pumped into a formation preferentially take the path of least resistance. This makes the placement and coverage of the acid an important component of the treatment design. In a typical treatment, most acid enters the formation through the least damaged perforation tunnels, as the schematic in Figure 1 shows. When this happens, it can be readily concluded that acidizing does not work well and is expensive.
The unitized wellhead is very different from the spool wellhead system, because it incorporates different design characteristics and features. The unitized wellhead, shown in Figure 1, is a one-piece body that is typically run on 13 3/8 -in. The casing hangers used are threaded and preassembled with a pup joint. This way, the threaded connection can be pressure tested before leaving the factory, ensuring that the assembly will have pressure-containing competence. Gate valves are installed on the external outlet connections of the unitized wellhead to enable annulus access to each of the intermediate and the production casing strings.
The subsea wellhead system (Figure 1) is a pressure-containing vessel that provides a means to hang off and seal off casing used in drilling the well. The wellhead also provides a profile to latch the subsea blowout preventer (BOP) stack and drilling riser back to the floating drilling rig. In this way, access to the wellbore is secure in a pressure-controlled environment. The subsea wellhead system is located on the ocean floor, and must be installed remotely with running tools and drillpipe. Figure 1--Illustration of a typical subsea wellhead system with temporary abandonment cap installed.