This paper presents the first successful application of ceramic sand screens offshore Malaysia. Ceramic sand screens were considered as a remedial sand-control method because of their superior durability and resistance compared with metallic sand screens. Shallow-water offshore production began before 1900 and continues to be important. Technology to maximize economic production from shallow-water fields can be adapted from onshore or deepwater technologies. Standalone-sand-screen (SAS) completion, especially in horizontal gas wells with high potential for sand production, typically suffers from premature failure caused by sand erosion resulting from high velocity in the annulus near the heel section.
A significant portion of Asia Pacific’s hydrocarbon production comes from poorly consolidated sandstone reservoirs which requires some form of sand control implementation for economic production. The expertise and engineering surrounding Sand Control completion designs and optimisation however has not kept pace with the region’s needs. The course introduces the participants to the causes of sand production, its impact on hydrocarbon production and the selection of an optimised design to develop the reservoir. The course details the evaluation of the reservoirs’ properties including geomechanical, particle size distribution and development objectives to aid in the selection and design of a robust sand control methodology for implementation. The Sand Control methods covered include deferred sand control, perforating for sand control, sand exclusion techniques; screen only completion, cased hole and open hole gravel packing and fracpacks for new reservoirs as well as remedial and retrofit applications for existing wells.
This paper describes a coreflooding program performed with sandpacks at different permeabilities, water qualities, and injection conditions. In this paper, a new type of sand-consolidation low-viscous binding material, based on a combination of inorganic and organic components, is presented. This paper presents the first successful application of ceramic sand screens offshore Malaysia. Ceramic sand screens were considered as a remedial sand-control method because of their superior durability and resistance compared with metallic sand screens. This paper proposes a new work flow to simulate water-hammer events, the resulting wellbore failure, and sand production in water injectors.
The course addresses the holistic sand management strategy implementation from geomechanics perspectives, through evaluation and implementation of appropriate solutions for minimisation of well costs and maximisation of reservoir productivity. It will look at the inter-relationships between geomechanics and operations, application of geomechanics in relation to sand production and completions, and show how geomechanics can be best applied to provide maximum value in sand management and life-of-well and field operations. The course comprehensively covers geomechanics and operational-related sand production mechanisms, laboratory simulations of sand production to provide measurement data for model calibration and validation, state-of-the-art analytical and 4-D numerical sanding predictive methodologies for life-of-well and field including scale effect, rock strength properties reduction associated with water-cut and estimation of cumulative sand volume and rate of sand production, and optimal mitigation and management of sand production taking into consideration the feasibility of deferment or elimination of sand control installation. The course is illustrated with field examples. Application of geomechanics in relation to sand production and completions in order to provide maximum value in sand management and life-of-well and field operations.
Failures due to solid particles flowing with the production fluid is one of the main causes of interventions in wells with beam pumping systems. When this problem is accompanied with chemical deposition like scale, leads to a very common intervention during well operation. This paper proposes an analytical methodology that consists of evaluation of the particle size distribution, viability for the use of sand screens and centrifugal separation systems for sand control management in wells with short run time. These systems have proven effective for failure wells that requires a sand control management system when if not addressed increase the lifting costs leading many projects to be infeasible from an economic standpoint. All the technical considerations are explained focusing on the information required and the parameters analyzed to recommend the most accurate design for sand control; selected approaches and models that have been developed to improve the run time due to sand issues are shown in this paper. A case study is showed in a well with average run time of 27 days indicating that identification of particle size distribution was a key factor to provide the right solution for sand control management. These novel applications help operators to reduced OPEX (operating expense), by minimizing well Interventions, decreasing failures in the pump; stabilizing the production and reducing the unforeseen interruption.
Fuxa, Jason (Baker Hughes) | Di Giampaolo, Paolo (Baker Hughes) | Ferrara, Giovanni (ENI) | Di Pietro, Mario (Baker Hughes) | Sportelli, Marco (ENI) | Ripa, Giuseppe (ENI) | Di Campli, Antonio (Baker Hughes)
This paper details a field application of Shaped Memory Polymer (SMP) material for sand management delivering an innovative approach for sand control completions. The use of the technology has enabled profitable exploitation of residual reserves in a mature gas field offshore Adriatic Sea. The paper reviews details of the field deployment, with both economic and well performance results described.
The Barbara Field was discovered in 1971 and 102 wells have been drilled to date. The trap is a very gentle, slightly asymmetrical anticline made by Pleistocene sandy turbidites,sedimented on the underlying carbonate substrate. Methane gas bearing layers have been sealed by several argillaceous intercalations that worked also as the source rocks of this multilayer reservoir. The sandy layers in this Pleistocene sequence, Carola Formation, have thickness ranging from few centimeters up to some meters, and porosity from 22 up to 33%. Isolation of multiple gas-water contacts and fines production have been two crucial issues while producing the field.
Since 2000, all seven Barbara platforms have required workovers by means of performing sidetracks. Due to the reservoir characteristics, the well interventions have been completed with multi-layer, stacked cased-hole sand control completions. Despite a continuous improvement of procedures and technique, the traditional sand control methods have been efficient but were no longer profitable, due to challenging market conditions.
An open-hole completion using SMP combined with zonal isolation and selective production has proved to be an effective alternative to cased-hole sand control. This novel completion approach resulted in a significant reduction in both cost and rig time. It is estimated that nearly two weeks of rig time was saved and an overall workover cost reduction of approximately 35%, with further efficiencies to be realized on upcoming deployments. To date, the completion has proved to be an effective sand control method, with no produced solids, no plugging effect, and gas production that has met expectations.
Riyanto, Latief (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Sidek, Sulaiman (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Hugonet, Vincent (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Yusuf, M Hafizi (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Salleh, Nurfarah Izwana (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Ambrose, Jonathan Luke (SMS Oilfield)
Many oil and gas fields have long been suffering from sand production due to either the absence or failure of primary well sand control. To avoid mobilizing costly work-over rig to pull out the tubing, operators have tried various thru-tubing remedial sand control. The well's condition such as sands accumulation and space constraints due to small inner diameter of tubing always make this remedial job challenging. It is not surprising that the results are not all satisfactory.
Among the industry-recognized remedial sand control, Stand Alone Screen (SAS) is the simplest and the cheapest method. Many SAS have been installed but most were failed with screen erosion as the main failure mechanism. Flowing high velocity fluid with sands wears out the screen fast making it impossible for the sands to bridge and to create formation sand pack around the screen.
Ceramic Sand Screen (CSS) technology which was recently introduced to the industry aims to address this erosion issue. Having more than ten times hardness of stainless steel, sintered silicon carbide ceramic material in CSS offers superior resistance to wear. The pilot was conducted by installing CSS in three (3) selected wells with sand production history. While waiting for acoustic sand monitoring installation, the wells were put on production with the same choke size and regular manual samplings were conducted to monitor the sand production.
The acoustic sand monitoring campaign began in November 2017. Sands production was carefully monitored during the process to determine the final choke size at which the wells would continuously produce. In the middle of the campaign due to adverse weather conditions, all non-essential personnel had to be abruptly demobilised from the field leaving acoustic sensors hooked-up to the respective flow line. This gave opportunity to have unplanned extended sand monitoring window.
Loss of Primary Containment (LOPCs) occurred in two CSS wells not long after that. In one the choke body was heavily eroded and the other well had a punched hole at the first elbow of the flowline. These incidents prompted full investigation to be conducted. This included pulling out the installed CSS and performed tear down analysis. Acoustic sand monitoring that just happened to be available in one of the wells proved to be critical in understanding the CSS failure.
The paper presents briefly on the CSS pilot project, the chronology of events until the incident, sands production trend from the acoustic sand monitoring. Using all available information, the paper provides details analysis on CSS failure mechanism.
It goes on to detail the mechanisms, applications, and challenges of the various sand control options in both vertical and horizontal applications. It mainly focuses on a practical project requiring the participants to apply what they have learned by selecting, designing and presenting the most appropriate sand control completion for several case study wells for both cold primary and thermal application. The course reviews several field failure examples and case studies to guide engineers to better understand the factors contributing to sand control failure and how they can operate their wells to minimize the failure potential. This training is geared towards petroleum engineers and production managers who wish to strengthen their technical understanding of sand control and to make confident purchasing decisions. Completion, drilling, reservoir, and production engineers involved in sand control design, installation and operating wells with sand control completion.
It goes on to detail the mechanisms, applications, and challenges of the various sand control options in both vertical and horizontal applications. It mainly focuses on a practical project requiring the participants to apply what they have learned by selecting, designing and presenting the most appropriate sand control completion for several case study wells for both cold primary and thermal application. The course reviews several field failure examples and case studies to guide engineers to better understand the factors contributing to sand control failure and how they can operate their wells to minimize the failure potential.
In 2014, number of exploratory wells were drilled and tested in Umm Niqa (UN) Field located in north Kuwait NE which approved a new discovery in Lower Fars (LF) reservoir.
LF is unconsolidated, sub –hydrostatic- sand stone reservoir with highly sour and moderate corrosive environment (H2S 8% and CO2 4%). Subsequently additional wells were drilled to evaluate the production potential of UN field. With rig on location UN wells are completed with test (Progressive Cavity Pump) PCP and tested. During the initial testing period the PCP is run at different speeds to evaluate the well productivity, water cut, and determine sand-free draw down to enable selection of suitable completion PCP for production.
Well UN-X is one of the developed wells which is perforated in LF sand in overbalanced condition using 4-1/2" (High Shot Density) HSD guns with 0.83" entrance hole diameter at 12 shoots per foot.
During initial testing with test PCP, the pump tripped due to high torque because of sand production (up to 60%). Five runs were performed to clean out the wellbore and repeated test PCP runs failed due to high sand production.
Coordination between FDHO (Field Development Heavy Oil) and Discovery Promotion Team was conducted to perform quick sand analysis to LF sands from offset sand distribution since subject well has no available sieve analysis. Based on the outcome of sieve analysis, decision was made to utilize one of the available SAS (Stand Alone Screen) designed for LF sand in another field to control sand production. It was agreed by both teams to install SAS in the subject well to mitigate the sand problem and minimize cost due to NPT (Non-Productive Time) of the rig. SAS was installed and the potential zone in UN-X could be tested successfully with tubing PCP. No sand problem was observed during testing and after testing while clean out operation there was no sand.
Well test showed an average liquid rate of 124 BFPD with 37% WC (predominantly completion brine). The well was put on production on November 2016 and producing till date without any sand problem.
This paper will include discussion on the approach used to select a sand control method for cold and heavy oil production. The results of sieve analysis was in the middle between sand screen and gravel pack but based on the team experience in sand control and the nature of heavy oil and its relatively low oil production rate, the decision was made to install SAS and that was proved to be prudent decision.