Dashti, Qasem M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-anzi, Ealian H.D. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al- Doheim, Aref (Kuwait Oil Company) | Kabir, Mir Md Rezaul (Kuwait Oil Company) | Acharya, Mihira Narayan (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ajmi, Saad (Kuwait Oil Company)
Robustness of measurement while drilling (MWD) and logging while drilling (LWD) tools is laboratory-tested and rigorously field-tested for the expected operating and measurement specifications. Such tools have been used in the industry for decades with proven track record of stability. However, a typical tool string deployed as a part of bottom-hole assembly (BHA) has recently failed to withstand the unexpected BH conditions during drilling of the pilot hole using potassium formate mud (KFM), a heavy water based mud. The failure occurred within a deep-fractured calcareous kerogen section (CKS).
The tools had multiple surface communication failures; the first one was resolved as debris was found obstructing the rotor-starter part before drilling the CKS. The second failure occurred in the back-up tools, after drilling into the CKS and remained unexplained throughout drilling with the expectation of BH data recorded on memory. Inspection of the tool components, once the drilling was completed, revealed two major findings: First, some parts of the BHA, specifically the components of the CuBe tool had "vanished??. Secondly, the recovered tool parts had further damage due to corrosion and pitting. In addition, an unexpected color change in metal body parts was observed.
In the paper, the authors explain the unique mystery of tool eating "down-hole ghost??. Similar tools were previously used without an issue at comparable high pressure and temperature conditions and in geological sections alike in Kuwait in drilling with oil-based mud. The service provider's operational experience elsewhere has failed to explain the bizarre outcome, as they had not encountered similar incidents of vanishing tool parts and down-hole color change. The claim was that similar tools were successfully operated in water-based mud drilling including KFM. This claim was confirmed prior to the field execution with metallurgical compatibility tests carried out by the mud supplier.
Al-salali, Yousef Zaid (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ayyavoo, ManiMaran (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-ibrahim, Abdullah Reda (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Bader, Haifa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Duggirala, Vidya Sagar (Kuwait Oil Company) | Subban, Packirisamy (Kuwait Oil Company)
This paper discusses the outstanding performance achieved in a deep HPHTJurassic formation drilled using Potassium Formate based fluid. This paper alsodescribes methodology adopted for short term testing and stimulation of anexploratory well and finally the field results.
Drilling and completion of deep Jurassic formations in the state of Kuwaitis generally done with Oil Base Mud (OBM) weighted with Barite. Duringdrilling, barite causes significant formation damage to the carbonates withnatural fractures and it is essential to stimulate the well to evaluate thereal reservoir potential. Formation damage is usually treated with matrix acidstimulation, however barite does not respond to acid. Kuwait Oil Company (KOC)was in search for an alternative drilling fluid causing relatively lessformation damage and also responds to remedial actions. Potassium Formate brinewith suitable weighting agent to achieve sufficient mud weight around 16ppg wasselected for field trial in one of the exploratory wells. Formate based brineis a high-density Water Base Mud (WBM) which maintains rheological stability athigh temperature and minimizes formation damage.
Last 2,000 feet in 6" hole section of 18,000 feet well was drilled using15.9 ppg Potassium Formate WBM. During short term testing, acid wash alone wassufficient to remove the formation damage and productivity has tripled which isunlikely in case of wells drilled with OBM.
This case study shows how Potassium Formate based mud enhanced theproductivity and reduced the testing time and cost. Based on the successfulfield test results, it is planned to drill future Jurassic deep formation withPotassium Formate based fluids in future.
Excessive water production from unwanted zones in oil producing wells is one of the major challenges faced by the oil industry. The applicability of organically crosslinked polymer (OCP) systems as sealants for water shutoff treatments in temperatures up to 350°F is well documented. However, their effectiveness at temperatures above 350°F has not been evaluated. This paper presents experimental data from using an OCP system for water shutoff treatments at 400°F.
At temperatures around 400°F, crosslinking is expected to happen faster and can lead to premature gelation of the recipe before the entire treatment is in place. Thus, controlling the gelation time at such temperatures is extremely crucial. Optimizing the amount of retarder is essential to provide adequate time for placement of the treatment fluid. This paper provides gelation time data at temperatures between 350 and 400°F with different amounts of retarder. With an optimum amount of retarder, the OCP showed a gelation time of 1 hr 20 min.
This paper also describes the experimental setup used to study and determine the long-term stability of the OCP system at 400°F. Sand packs measuring 1-ft long were used for the test to simulate formation conditions. Once the optimized OCP recipe was gelled inside the sand pack, measurements were taken by gradually applying incremental differential pressure (?P) to evaluate the sealant at temperature, as well as the threshold ?P the system could withstand. Even after one month at 400°F, the OCP recipe was able to sustain a ?P of 950 psi over the sand pack.
The data indicates the applicability of this system as an effective conformance product to shut off water-producing zones over an extended period of time at 400°F.
Fracture ballooning usually occurs in naturally fractured reservoirs and is often mistakenly regarded as an influx of formation fluid, which may lead to misdiagnosed results in costly operations. In order to treat this phenomenon and to distinguish it from conventional losses or kicks, several mechanisms and models have been developed. Among these mechanisms under which borehole ballooning in naturally fractured reservoirs take place, opening/closing of natural fractures plays a dominant role. In this study a mathematical model is developed for mud invasion through an arbitrarily inclined, deformable, rectangular fracture with a limited extension. A governing equation is derived based on equations of change and lubrication approximation theory (Reynolds’s Equation). The equation is then solved numerically using finite difference method. Considering an exponential pressure-aperture deformation law and a yield-power-law fluid rheology has made this model more general and much closer to the reality than the previous ones. Describing fluid rheology with yield-power-law model makes the governing equation a versatile model because it includes various types of drilling mud rheology, i.e., Newtonian fluids, Bingham-plastic fluids, power-law, and yield-power-law rheological models. Sensitivity analysis on some parameters related to the physical properties of the fracture shows how fracture extension, aspect ratio and length, and location of wellbore can influence fracture ballooning. The proposed model can also be useful for minimizing the amount of mud loss by understanding the effect of fracture mechanical parameters on the ballooning, and for predicting rate of mud loss at different formation pressures.
Ozyurtkan, Mustafa Hakan (Istanbul Technical University) | Altun, Gursat (Istanbul Technical University) | Ettehadi Osgouei, Ali (Istanbul Technical University) | Aydilsiz, Eda (Istanbul Technical University)
Static filtration of drilling fluids has long been recognized as an important parameter for drilling operations. Since the standard laboratory testing procedures only consider static conditions, the filtration and cake properties under continuous circulation and dynamic borehole conditions are not usually well determined. Therefore, the measurement of dynamic filtration is particularly important in order to mimic actual downhole conditions.
An experimental study has been carried out by the ITU/PNGE research group to characterize the dynamic filtration properties of clay based drilling fluids. This study is an impressive attempt to figure out the dynamic filtration phenomena of clay based muds. The experimental results obtained from a dynamic filtration apparatus (Fann Model 90) are reported in this study.
Bentonite and sepiolite clays based muds formulated with commercial additives have been investigated throughout the study. Numerous dynamic filtration histories with test duration of 45 to 60 minutes at temperature conditions ranging from 150 to 400 oF, and a differential pressure of 100 psi have been applied to muds. Three key parameters namely spurt loss volume, dynamic filtration rate (DFR), and cake deposition index (CDI) have been determined to characterize the dynamic filtration properties of mud samples.
Results have revealed that bentonite based muds have better dynamic filtration properties than those of sepiolite muds at temperatures up to 250 oF. However, they have lost their stability over 250 oF. Furthermore, formulated sepiolite based muds have remarkable dynamic filtration rates and cake depositions above 300 oF. To sum up, the experimental results of this study point out that sepiolite based muds might be a good alternative to drill wells experiencing high temperatures, particularly in deep oil, gas and geothermal wells.
During recent years there has been a significant increase in the use of filter cake removal systems that involve in-situ release of formic or lactic acid during the clean-up stages of the reservoir section, particularly in limestone formations. Furthermore, there have been opportunities to compare the field performance of these relatively small applications of weak, organic acids with significantly larger application volumes of highly concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). Surprisingly, some results showed that the smaller volumes of the weaker, organic acids could have equivalent or better performance than that produced by the more traditional HCl-based treatments. In particular this relationship was also observed in cases where the volume of HCl applied had significantly greater power to dissolve limestone than was the case for treatment with the more successful organic acid.
It is well known that productivity of wells in carbonate reservoirs is usually greatly improved by treatments designed to remove the filter cake and the low-permeability zone created by the drilling process, but it is not obvious why smaller volumes per foot of weak organic acid should be more effective than larger volumes per foot of stronger and more concentrated mineral acid.
It has been observed that the acid precursors which release the in-situ acids are applied to the formation in a neutral condition. The paper discusses the implications of using neutral acid precursors, and laboratory data is presented showing the effects of such treatments on the near-wellbore matrix permeability.
Historically, shale instability is a challenging issue when drilling reactive formations using water-based muds (WBM). Shale instability leads to shale sloughing, stuck pipe, and shale disintegration causing an increase in fines that affects the rate of penetration. To characterize shale instability, laboratory tests including Linear Swell Meter (LSM), shale-erosion and slake-durability are conducted in industry. These laboratory tests, under different flow conditions, provide shale-fluid interaction parameters which are indicative of shale instability. The composition of WBM is designed to optimize these interaction parameters, so that when used in the field the fluid helps achieve efficient drilling.
This paper demonstrates modeling of shale-fluid interaction parameters obtained from the LSM test. In the standard LSM test, a laterally confined cylindrical shale sample is exposed to WBM at a specific temperature and its axial swelling is measured with time. The swelling reaches a plateau which is characterized by a shale-fluid interaction parameter called % final swelling volume (A). A typical LSM test runs for around 48-72 hours and many tests may be needed to optimize fluid composition.
In this work, a method/model is developed to predict final swelling volume (A) as a function of the Cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the shale and salt concentration in the fluid (prominent factors affecting shale swelling). An empirical model in the form of A = f(CEC)*f(salt) which describes the explicit dependence on the influencing variables is developed and validated for 16 different shale samples at various salt concentrations. This model would significantly reduce LSM laboratory trials saving time and money. It could also enable rig personnel to obtain quick measure of shale characteristics so that WBM composition could be adjusted immediately to avoid shale instability issues.
The high-profile blowout at Macondo well in the US Gulf of Mexico, brought the challenges and the risks of drilling into high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) fields increasingly into focus. Technology, HSE, new standards, such as new API procedures, and educating the crew seem to be vital in developing HPHT resources. High-pressure high-temperature fields broadly exist in Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, South East Asia, Africa, China and Middle East. Almost a quarter of HPHT operations worldwide is expected to happen in American continent and the majority of that solely in North America. Oil major companies have identified key challenges in HPHT development and production, and service providers have offered insights regarding current or planned technologies to meet these challenges. Drilling into some shale plays such as Haynesville or deep formations and producing oil and gas at HPHT condition, have been crucially challenging. Therefore, companies are compelled to meet or exceed a vast array of environmental, health and safety standards.
This paper, as a simplified summary of the current status of HPHT global market, clarifies the existing technological gaps in the field of HPHT drilling, cementing and completion. It also contains the necessary knowledge that every engineer or geoscientist might need to know about high pressure high temperature wells. This study, not only reviews the reports from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and important case studies of HPHT operations around the globe but also compiles the technical solutions to better maneuver in the HPHT market. Finally, the HPHT related priorities of National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL), operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and DeepStar, as a strong mix of large and mid-size operators are investigated.
Al-Kuait, A.M.S. (Saudi Aramco) | Al-yateem, Karam Sami (ARAMCO Services Company) | Olivares, Tulio (Halliburton) | Zubail, Makki A. (Saudi Aramco) | El Bialy, Moustafa (Halliburton) | Ezell, Ryan G. (Halliburton) | Maghrabi, Shadaab (Halliburton)
Safaniya is one of largest offshore oil fields located north of Dhahran in Saudi Arabia. It is 50 km by 15 km in size and began production in 1956. Lately, a few wells drilled in this field showed reservoir damage where the production dropped or the well had no flow. Workover operations were performed on six wells and two new wells were drilled. For all eight wells, 6?-in. laterals were drilled through the reservoirs with an engineered invert emulsion drilling fluid (RDF). The RDF design was controlled to ensure an acid-soluble, thin, external filter cake with no fines invasion. The vulnerability of the filter cake to be attacked by the acid was fundamental to this RDF design. A delayed filter cake breaker fluid was then designed for use on the 6?-in. laterals; this fluid consisted of an organic acid precursor (OAP) and a water wetting additive. The OAP released acid in a delayed manner, whereas the water wetting additive made the oil-based filter cake water wet, to make it vulnerable to acid attack. With this approach, the filter cake was removed uniformly in all subject laterals across the reservoir. The production data on the eight wells treated with the OAP show an improved oil production rate of more than 4,000 B/D for six of the eight wells, which exceeds the key performance indicator (KPI) set for the laterals. In previous years from 2005-10, the six workover wells showed, on average, very low oil production rates (OPR) comparatively. In addition, after the OAP treatment, these six wells show higher well flow head pressures than in 2005-10. The water cut percentage on these laterals was 0 or less than 1, compared to 2005-10, when the water cut percentage varied from 8% to 50% for these workover wells. This paper discusses the workover operation of the six wells and the drilling and delayed stimulation treatment on two new wells in the Safaniya field, including laboratory evaluation, field application and production data.
Barite is the most common weighting material for drilling fluids, which contain several heavy components including lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic. Some of these heavy materials can discharge into the sea, which is not allowed especially in the case of oil-based drilling fluid. The supply of barite is geographically limited, with high transportation costs. To overcome the high cost, shortage, and common problems of barite, an alternative weighting material, ilmenite (5 µm), is introduced which is heavier than barite and more stable at high temperature. Also, the micronized ilmenite was introduced to overcome the ECD challenges in some drilling operations at reasonable cost.
Extensive lab work was done in order to: 1) optimize the rheological properties of the drilling fluid, 2) determine the optimum pH that gives stable dispersion, 3) assess the thermal stability, 4) optimize the filtration parameters (filtrate volume and filter cake thickness), and 5) characterize the ilmenite-based filter cake.
Zeta potential results showed that ilmenite was stable when mixed with water at a pH above 7 and it was dispersed and stable when mixed with the drilling fluid components. Drilling fluids have a density range from 100 to 120 pcf and a plastic viscosity of 28-32 cp. No phase separation was observed after hot rolling for 16 hrs at 300°F. The optimized water-based drilling fluid formula had a small filtrate volume (12 cm3) and thin filter cake (0.2 in.) under dynamic conditions. SEM analysis showed that ilmenite filter cake was heterogeneous and contained ilmenite particles in the layer closer to the rock surface. The layer closer to the drilling surface had a mixture of xanthan gum and modified starch, which were used to optimize the rheological properties at 250°F. This study will provide a complete evaluation of the drilling fluids with ilmenite as a weighting material and will help drilling engineers to better design drilling fluids for HPHT wells.