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A number of cementitious materials used for cementing wells do not fall into any specific API or ASTM classification.These materials include: Pozzolanic materials include any natural or industrial siliceous or silico-aluminous material, which will combine with lime in the presence of water at ordinary temperatures to produce strength-developing insoluble compounds similar to those formed from hydration of Portland cement. Typically, pozzolanic material is categorized as natural or artificial, and can be either processed or unprocessed. The most common sources of natural pozzolanic materials are volcanic materials and diatomaceous earth (DE). Artificial pozzolanic materials are produced by partially calcining natural materials such as clays, shales, and certain siliceous rocks, or are more usually obtained as an industrial byproduct. Pozzolanic oilwell cements are typically used to produce lightweight slurries.
Weighting agents or heavyweight additives are used to increase slurry density for control of highly pressured wells. Weighting agents are normally required at densities greater than 17 lbm/gal where dispersants or silica is no longer effective. This is the most commonly used weighting agent. Hematite is a brick-red, naturally occurring mineral with a dull metallic luster. It contains approximately 70% iron.
Accelerators speed up or shorten the reaction time required for a cement slurry to become a hardened mass. In the case of oilfield cement slurries, this indicates a reduction in thickening time and/or an increase in the rate of compressive-strength development of the slurry. Acceleration is particularly beneficial in cases where a low-density (e.g., high-water-content) cement slurry is required or where low-temperature formations are encountered. Of the chloride salts, CaCl2 is the most widely used, and in most applications, it is also the most economical. The exception is when water-soluble polymers such as fluid-loss-control agents are used.
Spacers and flushes are effective displacement aids, because they separate incompatible fluids such as cement and drilling fluid. A spacer is a fluid used to separate drilling fluids and cementing slurries. A spacer can be designed for use with either water-based or oil-based drilling fluids, and prepares both pipe and formation for the cementing operation. Spacers are typically densified with insoluble-solid weighting agents. For example, a spacer is a volume of fluid injected ahead of the cement, but behind the drilling fluid.
Remedial cementing requires as much technical, engineering, and operational experience, as primary cementing but is often done when wellbore conditions are unknown or out of control, and when wasted rig time and escalating costs force poor decisions and high risk. Squeeze cementing is a "correction" process that is usually only necessary to correct a problem in the wellbore. Before using a squeeze application, a series of decisions must be made to determine (1) if a problem exists, (2) the magnitude of the problem, (3) if squeeze cementing will correct it, (4) the risk factors present, and (5) if economics will support it. Most squeeze applications are unnecessary because they result from poor primary-cement-job evaluations or job diagnostics. Squeeze cementing is a dehydration process.
Abstract Cementing a highly deviated production liner is associated with cement placement challenge that can compromise zonal isolation. A major operator in UAE, was facing a challenge to cement 4 ½ in slim production liner set at 5000 ft off-bottom. The corresponding 6 in. section was drilled with a relatively high mud weight in the range of 12 to 13 PPG. One of the main challenge was the risk of solids settling on the low side of the wellbore, making mud displacement difficult to achieve while cementing. Additionally, cementing off-bottom without an ECP in a highly deviated wellbore with multiple exposed production zones, further increased cement placement complexity. A holistic engineering approach was integrated to ensure successful zonal isolation. Wellbore parameters and fluid properties were critically evaluated. To overcome off-bottom cementing and prevent slurry fallback risks, a weighted high viscosity pill with high yield point was placed as a temporary basement to support the cement column and isolate the reservoir during 4 ½ in liner job. After placement of the pill, the wellbore was observed for flow checks to ensure stable downhole conditions prior to displacing the drilling fluid across the liner interval to brine within the same density. A centralization program was implemented to achieve more than 70% stand-off which required a minimum centralization pattern of two rigid centralizers per joint which helped minimize the presence of mud channels on the narrow side. Effective mud removal was ensured through implementation of a spacer train in front of the cement. The first spacer was pumped with same mud density to reduce ECD followed by another advanced low invasion loss circulation spacer to mitigate losses as well as provide a sustained downhole rheology. A resilient, expandable and gas tight cement slurry, was selected to target long-term zonal isolation. Multiple hydraulic simulations were performed to optimize ECDs and ensure safe margins during placement A CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model was utilized to simulate hydraulics, expected mud removal and fluids inter-mixing especially during liner rotation. In addition, the model simulated high-calculated torques based on flow restrictions through liner hanger assembly. Lack of mechanical liner movement was compensated by additional pre-job circulation to fully condition the wellbore. The job was executed with no losses during cementing, and spacer and cement returns were received on the surface during reverse out. Utilizing the best engineering approach, practices, and techniques from this job is implemented in the future wells as the production of the well is directly affected by the cement quality. Post job cement integrity evaluation via a cement bond log confirmed excellent bonding of cement to the liner and reservoirs across the entire open-hole interval.
Abstract The success or failure of cement plugs are known to alter the timeline of an oil well; not to mention the additional costs and NPT associated with the rig activities. Unsuccessful cement plug costs oil companies considerable amount of capital both in extra rig time and service company expenses. Suggested procedures for placing cement plugs have been presented in number of papers - comprising of slurry design, spacer recommendations, laboratory testing and placement techniques. However, it is very easy to deviate from these standard practices due to over confidence, negligence or both. In Mexico, it was observed that the success rate of placing cement plugs dropped due to operational and engineering design shortcomings. Towards the end of 2018 there were several unsuccessful cement plug jobs that questioned the regular plug procedures. Careful analysis of the past mistakes led to the conclusion that an effective approach to alter the local plug placement practices was necessary. An updated cement plug placement software was used in conjunction with strict standard practices that turned around the trend and enabled consistent successful placement of cement plugs in the first attempt itself. A detailed yet simple approach towards cement plugs was adopted in both engineering design and operational execution. Additionally the updated plug placement software ensured accurate prediction of the cement plug top; that was confirmed by the actual tag of the plug. This paper will enlist the major analysis carried out on the unsuccessful plug jobs and highlight the different techniques that were adopted in the subsequent jobs to ensure successful placement and tagging of the cement plug. The paper will also focus on how the plug placement software's new additional features have made a significant contribution to this success story.
Adjei, Stephen (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals) | Elkatatny, Salaheldin (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (Corresponding author) | Sarmah, Pranjal (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)) | Chinea, Gonzalo (Baker Hughes)
Summary Fly ash, which is a pozzolan generated as a byproduct from coal-powered plants, is the most used extender in the design of lightweight cement. However, the coal-powered plants are phasing out due to global-warming concerns. There is the need to investigate other materials as substitutes to fly ash. Bentonite is a natural pozzolanic material that is abundant in nature. This pozzolanic property is enhanced upon heat treatment; however, this material has never been explored in oil-well cementing in such form. This study compares the performance of 13-ppg heated (dehydroxylated) sodium bentonite and fly-ash cement systems. The raw (commercial) sodium bentonite was dehydroxylated at 1,526°F for 3 hours. Cement slurries were prepared at 13 ppg using the heated sodium bentonite as partial replacements of cement in concentrations of 10 to 50% by weight of blend. Various tests were done at a bottomhole static temperature of 120°F, bottomhole circulating temperature of 110°F, and pressure of 1,000 psi or atmospheric pressure. All the dehydroxylated sodium bentonite systems exhibited high stability, thickening times in the range of 3 to 5 hours, and a minimum 24-hour compressive strength of 600 psi. At a concentration of 40 and 50%, the 24-hour compressive strength was approximately 800 and 787 psi, respectively. This was higher than a 13-ppg fly-ash-based cement designed at 40% cement replacement (580 psi).
Eid, E. (University of Stavanger) | Tranggono, H. (University of Stavanger) | Khalifeh, M. (University of Stavanger (Corresponding author) | Salehi, S. (email: email@example.com)) | Saasen, A. (University of Oklahoma)
Summary Our objective is to present selected rheological and mechanical properties of rock-based geopolymers contaminated with different concentrations of drilling fluids. The possible flash setting and the maximum intake of drilling fluids before seeing a dramatic deterioration of the geopolymers are presented. Rock-based geopolymers designed for cementing conductor and surface casing were prepared and cured for up to 28 days at 22°C and atmospheric pressure. Water-based drilling fluids (WBDFs) and oil-based drilling fluids (OBDFs) were designed in accordance with the recommendations from the petroleum industry. The fluid samples were prepared, and their viscous behavior was characterized before and after hot-rolling. The geopolymeric slurries were mixed and then blended with the prepared drilling fluid volumes. The contaminated geopolymeric slurries were cured and tested at different time intervals. American Petroleum Institute (API) Class G neat cement was used as a reference. These samples were cured and contaminated with the same drilling fluids. The properties of contaminated geopolymer slurries were benchmarked with those of the contaminated Class G cement. The obtained mechanical properties showed that the rock-based geopolymers are more sensitive to WBDFs than to OBDFs. However, for contaminated Portland cement samples, the obtained results were opposite, and the contamination effect of OBDF on cement was more noticeable than WBDF. The impact of geopolymer contamination is a function of curing time. Although geopolymeric samples showed dramatic strength retrogression at the early time, strength buildup of the samples compensated for the impact of contamination.
Abstract Monobore cementation is defined as where a single production tubing size runs from the pay zone all the way to surface and is cemented in place. This type of well design greatly reduce rig time and cost. The challenge however is to achieve a good cement in the annulus as a well barrier and to have a clean internal tubing after the cementing job to allow for successful production of the well. To achieve a clean internal tubing, a distinct bottom and top plugs were used as a means of mechanical separation. For fluids design, mud had to be thinned down prior to the cementing job and, a designed fiber based spacer system was used to physically scrub any mud-film sticking on the tubing walls. The centralizers and cement system were designed to allow for efficient displacement of mud and hence providing good overall placement and top of cement in the tubing-casing annulus. The cement in the annulus will be verified by pressure testing the annulus to 500 psi higher than previous shoe leak-off. This approach was implemented for the campaign of six wells, all designed with 5-1/2in monobore tubing. The bottomhole static temperature (BHST) of the well ranges from 300 to 350°F. The cementing system also had to be designed to cater to the challenge of this field, having CO2 as high as 60%, high temperatures, and a long open hole section that requires isolation and cement to set within a required timeframe. The cementing jobs were validated by no losses or gains during the job, floats holding at the end of the cementing job, differential pressure of cement prior to bumping the plug, density and pump rates executed as planned, accepted pressure test criteria of the annulus, output validation of cement contamination in pipe and annulus based on fluids and final well information. To further validate this system, the cement bond log was also run as part of the evaluation process and the cement log showed that zonal isolation was achieved. After the perforations, the perforation tool was pulled out to surface and the tool looked very clean with no signs of contaminated mud or cement around the tool. We demonstrate how this unique cementing approach can be a solution for the challenges of monobore cementing and one of the biggest problems of monobore cementing in the industry.