Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Lian, David (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute For Scientific Research)
It is not easy to obtain an optimal hole cleaning for the drilling operation because of the complicated relationship between the drilling parameters influencing hole cleaning. The two viscosity components (e.g. plastic viscosity (PV) and yield point (YP)) and the flow rate (Q) are essential parameters for effective hole cleaning. Thus, understanding the relationship between those parameters will contribute to efficient hole cleaning. The aim of this paper is to explore those relationships to provide optimal hole cleaning.
Descriptive data analytics was conducted for data of more than 2000 wells drilled in Southern Iraq. The data were first cleansed and outliers were removed using visual inspection and box plots. The Pearson correlation (PC), a widely used method to measure the linear relationship between two parameters, was utilized to access the relationships between PV and Q, YP and Q, and YP/PV and Q. Moreover, a 10% sensitivity analysis was escorted to quantify and comprehend those relationships.
The PCs were calculated to be 0.5, 0.076, and 0.22 for the relationships between YP, PV, and YP/PV with Q, respectively. YP had the highest direct relationship with Q, while PV had the lowest. When the YP increases, a sufficient Q has to be provided to initiate the flow and maintain the mud cycle. In addition, to prevent large solid particles from settling due to the slip velocity, sufficient annular and particle velocities have to be achieved. After initiating the flow, an increase in flow rate to overcome resistance due to PV will not be significant. Therefore, YP has more effect on Q than PV. To maximize hole cleaning, thickening ratio (YP/PV) should be increased. This requires an increase in flow rate, which can be quantified by using the sensitivity analysis provided to achieve the required Q for any increase in YP/PV.
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Lian, David (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
Flow rate (Q) affects many drilling operations and parameters such as equivalent circulation density (ECD), hoisting and lowering the drillstring, and breaking gel strength during circulation. The aim of this work is to understand the relationship between ECD and Q based on flow regimes (e.g. laminar, transitional, and turbulent) to avoid or at least minimize the unwanted consequence during drilling practice.
Field data from over 2000 wells drilled in Iraq were collected and analyzed to identify the physical relationship between flow regimes and ECD to enhance the drilling rates. After visualizing the whole dataset, a decision was made to break down the data into three parts based on flow regimes (e.g. laminar, transitional, and turbulent). Descriptive data mining techniques were utilized to establish the relationship between flow regimes and ECD. By achieving better control of ECD in the well, not only faster and cheaper operations are possible, but also safety will be improved.
Previous studies and literature showed that flow regimes can tremendously affect ECD. Many studies have been conducted to understand the relationship between Q and ECD. Nevertheless, the consideration of flow regimes was not implemented in these studies. Inconsistency in the literature results was identified, some concluded the relationship between Q and ECD to be direct, and others showed it to be inverse. Thus, this paper will eliminate this discrepancy in the literature, and it will show that the flow regimes have a pivotal role in the relationship between Q and ECD.
The results of this paper showed that if the flow regime is laminar, the relationship between ECD and Q is inverse. However, in transitional and turbulent flow regimes, the relationship between ECD and Q is direct. That is because, in the laminar flow regime, the cutting will fall out of suspension due to low Q, which will cause a cutting bed to be built and decreases ECD. As Q increases (entering the transitional and turbulent flows) the cutting bed will be eroded, and most of the cuttings will be suspended in the fluid which will increase ECD.
This study examines and expands the understanding between how the characteristics of flow regimes affect ECD. Additionally, this paper will eliminate the discrepancy in the literature about this relationship between ECD and Q.
The compositional flow simulation model was frequently used to evaluate the miscible water alternating CO2 flooding (CO2-WAG). The uncertainty and sensitivity analysis have to be conducted to examine the parameters mostly affecting the performance of the process. Accordingly, multiple simulation runs require to be constructed which is a time-consuming procedure and finally increase the computational cost. This paper presents a simplistic approach to assess the miscible CO2-WAG flooding in an Iraqi oilfield through developing a statistical proxy model. The Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to build the proxy model to determine the incremental oil recovery (ΔFOE) as a function of seven reservoir and operating parameters (permeability, porosity, ratio of vertical to horizontal permeability, cyclic length, bottom hole pressure, ratio of CO2 slug size to water slug size, and CO2 slug size). In total, 81 compositional simulation runs were conducted at field-scale to establish the proxy model. The validity of the model was investigated based on statistical tools; the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), R-squared statistic and the adjusted R-squared statistic of 0.0095, 0.9723 and 0.9507 confirmed the reliability of the model. The most influential and the optimum values of the parameters that lead to the higher ΔFOE during miscible CO2-WAG process were identified through proxy modeling analysis. The developed model was created based on the Nahr Umr reservoir in Subba oilfield and can be applied to roughly estimate the ΔFOE during the miscible CO2-WAG process at the same geological conditions as Nahr Umr reservoir.
Studies by leading organizations highlight the importance of increasing internal talent mobility. Giving talented employees the experience of working in different countries and across diverse roles is a growing trend in developing their capabilities and skills.
This paper describes how Kuwait Petroleum International (KPI), an international subsidiary of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), is drawing on its long and successful experience in this area to develop proposals for extending these programs to other subsidiary companies in the K-Group (K-companies).
To achieve its objective to become a global integrated oil and gas leader, KPC needs talented leaders with the agility, flexibility and understanding that is developed through mobility. Such experience is especially important for Kuwaiti nationals, who may have limited exposure to working abroad.
Sponsored by KPI, a Work Group has been set up with representatives from across the K-Group to develop mobility proposals for the K-Companies. It has established that global mobility is not feasible on a mass scale and that a diversification program, to provide experience of working in different roles and companies, needs to be developed alongside a global mobility program.
The Work Group has undertaken extensive research to determine best practice in mobility and has analyzed the K-Companies’ 2040 strategic objectives to understand the skills and capabilities required to support their complex activities. It has proposed future targets, based on the historic number of employees in each company with global mobility experience.
It recommends focusing global mobility programs on Juniors and Young Professionals, who have the greatest number of career years left to maximize the return on investment.
The paper describes the different types of global mobility assignments and how a new graduate program for Young Professionals, incorporating global mobility and diversification, will be developed. It also looks at the monitoring required to support participants and ensure that the programs remain aligned with business objectives.
Strong foundations are in place to launch the mobility programs and detailed discussions will be conducted with the K-Companies to refine the proposed directions and targets.
The vision is that, within five years, global mobility and diversification will be fully embedded throughout the K-Group and closely aligned with business objectives.
Al-Shammari, Asrar (Kuwait Oil Company) | Gonzalez, Fabio A (BP Kuwait) | Gonzalez, Doris L (BP America) | Jassim, Sara (Kuwait Oil Company) | Sinha, Satyendra (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Nasheet, Anwar (Kuwait Oil Company) | Datta, Kalyanbrat (Kuwait Oil Company) | Younger, Robert (BP Kuwait) | Almahmeed, Fatma (Kuwait Oil Company)
Magwa-Marrat reservoir fluid is an asphaltenic hydrocarbon, exhibiting precipitation and deposition of asphaltene in the production system including the reservoir rock near wellbore and the tubing. The main objective of this work was to optimize production in Magwa-Marrat wells by remediation of tubing plugging and formation damage. Well interventions were prioritized based on potential production benefit resulting from the removal of productivity impairment. It was required to understand current formation damage in all wells, including those without recent pressure transient analysis (PTA).
All PTA tests since 1983 for Magwa-Marrat reservoir were analyzed to determine the different reservoir parameters such as flow capacity (KH), Skin (S), reservoir boundaries, and the extrapolated reservoir pressure (P*). PTA derived permeability was compared to log derived permeability to quality control skin determination. Independently formation damage was estimated using the radial form of the solution of the diffusivity equation for pseudo steady state flow. Once a skin correlation for both PTA vs. Darcy's law equation was derived using out of date well performance, the formation damage for all wells was accessed using current productivity index to identify production optimization opportunities in wells without recent PTA. This work was combined with nodal analysis to separate vertical lifting performance and inflow performance relationship impact on total productivity detriment.
Cross plot of PTA derived flow capacity (Kh) vs. Log derived Kh correlates very well with a slope and a coefficient of correlation close to 1.0. This was observed for wells located in the reservoir where there are not heterogeneities near wellbore such as boundaries or natural fractures. For these cases the higher than normally observed estimated skin explained poorer well productivity. After skin values were accessed for all wells, a production gain was estimated, and the wells were ranked based on potential benefit. A stimulation campaign was put in place based on the type of rock, formation damage and vertical lifting performance. Eight (8) wells were stimulated and they delivered approximately an additional 20% production for the field.
This work was innovative in the sense that there was not pressure build up tests run prior to the interventions and such, there was not any production deferral. This was achieved by building the well performance understanding on a correlation that required petrophysical description, production rates and estimates of drainage area reservoir pressure.
With maturing oil fields there is an increasing focus on improving the oil recovery factor and pushing the envelope toward a 70% target. This target is indeed very challenging and depends on a number of factors including enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods, reservoir heterogeneities, displacement efficiency, and reservoir sweep. Other factors also play a role including vertical sweep due to flow behind the casing, well integrity issues, presence of conductive faults, or fractures. Proper surveillance performed to evaluate the injectant plume front, reservoir conformance, well connectivity, assessment of the integrity of wells, and other factors can be crucial for the success of the project and its future development.
The paper discusses special downhole logging techniques including a set of conventional multiphase sensors alongside high precision temperature (HPT) and high-definition spectral noise logging (SNL-HD). It was run to provide complete assessment of the injection – production distribution and any associated well integrity issues that might impair the lateral sweep of injectants into the target layer. This will be done for an injector and producer pair near the wellbore area. The operation was carried out with a tool string that contained no mechanical parts and was not affected by downhole fluid properties. It was conducted under flowing and shut-in conditions to identify flow zones and check fracture signatures. It also provided multiphase fluid velocity profiles.
The results of the survey allowed for in-depth assessment of borehole and behind casing flow, confirming lateral continuity, and provided an assessment of production-injection outside the pay zone. Results will allow for better well planning and anticipation of possible loss of well integrity that might impair production in the future. Combining the behind casing flow assessment with borehole multiphase flow distribution can be used for production optimization by sealing unwanted water contributing zones.
Mauddud Formation is a major oil-producing reservoir in Raudhatain Field of North Kuwait. The Mauddud Formation is an early Albian in age and it was generated an environment of the shallow-water carbonate and consists of Grainstones, Wackestones and Mudstones deposited in ramp settings. In Raudhatain field (RAMA) is undertaking massive development efforts with planned enhancement in Oil production. Reservoir description and distribution of rock properties in 3D space are challenging due to inherent reservoir heterogeneity, in this case primarily driven by depositional and diagenetic patterns.
KOC North Kuwait Reservoir Studies Team (NK RST) has been challenged to increase the production from several key NK oil fields. To achieve this goal, KOC has partnered with Schlumberger to rebuild integrated model with Petrophysics, Geophysics, and Geology and Reservoir data of the Mauddud Reservoir. The original model was required to minimize challenges in new infill locations, increase Oil recovery factor and detect water breakthrough to minimize water production. One of the key issues in creating RAMA reservoir model is integration of all available data in identifying the horizontal permeability, reservoir heterogeneity and identification of thief zones.
A fine Geological grid model with 35M cells, 10 Geological horizons has been built to characterize the Mauddud reservoirs of the RAMA field including the permeability from PLT logs combined with petrophysical and lithological / facies data to add more understanding of the distribution of reservoir properties. Log response group methodology and the undeveloped area in the Saddle (structurally low area) has been modelled for the first time in Raudhatain NK Field. This combined study utilizes the available data and cutting-edge technology using Geo2Flow which resulted in fluid compartmentalization and free water level identification. STOOIP has been upgraded and unlocking potential in new segments of the developed field. The original model was built based on vertical/Deviation wells (345) which lead to discrepancies in the structural interpretation. The new update has been carried out including all horizontal wells to minimize the uncertainty in the structure framework.
Al Jadi, Issa A. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Desai, Sameer Faisal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ghanim, Wafaa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Wazzan, Roqaya M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Sabea, Salem H. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Haddad, Saud M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Franco, Francy Milena (Schlumberger) | Khor, Siew Hiang (Schlumberger) | Saxena, Aditya (Schlumberger) | Zhang, Qiong Michael (Schlumberger) | Hapsari, Hairuni Safri Tri (Schlumberger) | Elayaat, Ahmed A.Fouad. (Schlumberger) | Bodwadkar, Suhas V. (Schlumberger)
A proven and effective integrated asset modelling (IAM) approach has been adopted to bring multiple interdependent wells, pipelines networks, and process facilities models together into one single truly integrated asset model for the Greater Burgan Oilfield in Kuwait. The integrated wells-network facility models via the IAM platform also includes a water processing facility model which consists of 2 effluent water disposal plants; a crude oil export pipeline network and a water reinjection network model. This paper describes how a representative integrated asset model was developed for the Greater Burgan Oilfield through a model centric approach executed within an Integrated Operational Excellence (IOX) Program towards a Digital Transformation initiative by Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) South and East Kuwait (S&EK) Group together with Schlumberger. It also describes how this tool enables the asset teams to evaluate different operating scenarios to further enhance well performance and the overall asset productivity via rerouting well flow path to an appropriate header, identifying well workover opportunities, reevaluating artificial lift design, adding future wells (for field development) and comprehensive understanding of well integrity and flow assurance studies. The assessment was done not only at a gathering center (GC) level but also asset-wide level where the complete system constraints, interactions and back pressure effects between more than 2000 different wells were fully accounted. The simulated results such as pressure gradient, temperature gradient and erosional velocity ratio gradient across the production networks are presented on the GIS map for easy opportunity identification. The availability of this fully integrated asset model with up-to date calibrated wells and network models and process models enables KOC engineers to better understand current well performance and production potential, identify any possible bottlenecks imposed by the large complex surface network and process facilities of Greater Burgan Oilfield.
Desai, Sameer Faisal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Rane, Nitin M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Shammari, Baraa S. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Sabea, Salem H. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Naqi, Meqdad (Kuwait Oil Company)
Kuwait Oil Company initiatives for ushering in a new era of digital transformation of its assets to intelligently and optimally manage the Oil and Gas fields were successfully realized with the completion of three pilot projects entitled Kuwait Integrated Digital Fields (KwIDF). This paper discusses major achievements of the Digital Oilfield technology implemented in Burgan KwIDF project and provides an insight on the challenges in operating it.
The Burgan KwIDF pilot successfully transformed GC-1 production asset into a fully instrumented DOF comprising of digital instruments and infrastructure installed at well site and the production facility. Real-time production data is transmitted to a state of the art collaboration center that integrates data continuously with automated workflows for validation, modeling and tuning of well and facility models. Right time decision support information generated from smart visualization tools allow quick actions for production optimization, well and facility management in a collaborative work environment.
There is persistent value realization from KwIDF technology implemented in Burgan field. It has generated substantial cost savings with faster response time in restoring production and reduction in non-productive time. Driven by the digital environment asset production has sustained at target as production gain opportunities are capitalized and losses compensated quickly.
Over the period of time with experience in utilizing the DOF technology it has been observed that the technology sustainment is dependent on the technology providers to a large extent. The main components that require their continuous support are the digital instruments, proprietary software, hardware and related infrastructure. Technical expertise in each domain is necessary for ensuring continuous and smooth operations in the field, wellsite and collaboration centers. Development of an integrated team of domain experts is crucial for successfully managing the DOF operations. Change management initiatives for developing an in house user champion team is mandatory for ensuring sustainment. The important lessons learned and solutions are discussed in detail.
AL-Rashidi, Hamad (Kuwait Oil Company) | AL-Azmi, Waled (Kuwait Oil Company) | AL-Azmi, Talal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ahmed, Ashfaq (Kuwait Oil Company) | Muhsain, Batoul (Kuwait Oil Company) | Mousa, Saad (Kuwait Oil Company) | AL-Kandari, Noor (Kuwait Oil Company) | AL-Sabah, Fahad (AL-Thurya) | AL-Hajri, Mohsen (BG) | AL-Mutwa, Bandar (AAA)
Crude oil production in Um-Ghdair field is consider one of the most complex operational activities in Kuwait Oil Company due to high water cut percentage, asphaletene flocculation, high viscosity and tight emulsion phenomena. As the fluid travels through the reservoir, wellbore, flowline, all the way to the gathering center, the state of initial equilibrium is disturbed leading to change in the chemical composition of the crude oil. As pressure and temperature continue to drop, and gas escapes, more asphaltenes and heavy components may continue to flocculate all the way throughout the system until the petroleum reaches its final destination. In this pilot project, asphaltene inhibitor and viscosity reducer agents were selected for reducing oil viscosity and breaking the tight emulsion phenomena in the selected piloting well in Um-Ghdair field. It was noticed that there is an asphaltene compounds flocculate in the interface between oil and water leading to increase crude oil viscosity. The best two among 22 chemical formulations tested through the screening process at lab scale and take it to pilot stage. Additionally, the pilot study examined the influences effective for surfactants such as water composition, temperature, concentration, pH and total dissolved solids. It was noticed that the viscosity reduction and the water separation improve with increasing surfactant concentration and increasing temperature up to 50 F. Two formulations were selected based on cost effective optimal concentrations of surfactant that identified from the bottle test. The pilot has been implemented successfully in the field, resulting a reduction in non-production time and increase the oil mobility from the reservoir.