Santin, Y. (Halliburton) | Matar, K. (Halliburton) | Montes, E. (Halliburton) | Gorgi, S. (Halliburton) | Joya, J. (Halliburton) | Bu-Mijdad, M. (KOC) | Al-Mubarak, H. (KOC) | Al-Lafi, M. (KOC) | Al-Hamad, A. (KOC) | Al-Askar, H. (KOC) | Al-Shamaa, M. (KOC) | Al-Enizi, O. (KOC) | Bu-Qurais, A. (KOC) | Madhavan, S. (KOC) | Al-Dashti, M. (KOC)
Injection profile enhancement has been one of the primary objectives for an operator in Kuwait. Stimulation interventions in injector wells directly affect the enhancement of oil recovery in producer wells. This paper presents the application of a verifiable stimulation intervention in a water injector well to help achieve the operator's objectives.
The intervention presented several challenges. There was limited information available for the newly drilled carbonate formation under consideration in the Greater Burgan Field. Additionally, the fiberglass well tubing required significant attention before running in hole (RIH) with coiled tubing (CT). A high concentration of H2S was identified in Formation A; therefore, gas returns were also a potential issue. This paper discusses the methods used to help address these challenges. During this case study, real-time fiber-optic cable CT (RTFOCT) technology was applied in the fiberglass tubing injector well to determine initial well injection profile and adjust treatment accordingly. This technology includes a fiber-optic cable integrated into the CT pipe and a modular sensing bottomhole assembly (BHA).
RTFOCT technology allows for rigless operations and performs interval diagnostics, stimulation treatment, and evaluation in a single CT run. During this case study, the well injectivity increased by more than 100%. Diagnostics and evaluation were performed by analyzing the well thermal profile using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The BHA helped ensure accurate fluid placement during the treatment using real-time pressure, temperature, and depth-correlation sensors. The RTFOCT technology provided real-time downhole information that was used to analyze reservoir parameters, help ensure accurate fluid placement, and enable quick and smart decisions regarding the stimulation treatment stages based on the fluid intake in different zones. During injection, the heterogeneous fluid flow became homogeneous along the interval confirmed with the thermal-hydraulic model (THM). This helped reliably complete the intervention operations and delay possible water breakthrough in the producer wells and extended reservoir recovery.
Al Shoaibi, S. (Petroleum Development) | Kechichian, J. (Petroleum Development) | Mjeni, R. (Petroleum Development) | Al Rajhi, S. (Petroleum Development) | Bakker, G. G. (Petroleum Development) | Hemink, G. (Shell Global Solutions International B.V) | Freeman, F. (Shell Global Solutions International B.V)
Fiber Optics Distributed sensing technologies are evolving in the petroleum industry with its potential applicability in many areas of surveillance. Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) is embarking upon the implementation of this technology in various assets including both Gas and Oil fields. The vision of the company is to have the Fiber Optics distributed sensing technology as a surveillance tool in the Well and Reservoir Management (WRFM) toolbox and to become, where appropriate, a key element of its cycle. In comparison to conventional surveillance, fiber optic distributed sensing requires no well intervention and thereby reducing HSSE exposure and production deferment. In addition, the installed fibers can be used for multiple applications, e.g. hydraulic fracture performance monitoring and inflow performance monitoring. Recently, PDO trialed Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) and Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technologies utilizing both, dip-in surveys and permanent installation of fiber optics in the wells.
Fiber optic implementation in PDO included a polymer flooding trial in heavy oil, high permeability clastic reservoir with a strong bottom water aquifer drive. The objective was to monitor well conformance as the polymer injection progressed. The horizontal injectors were completed with pre-drilled liner and divided into four zones, each with an independent Inflow Control Valve (ICV). The well was completed with a multi-mode (MM) fiber pumped into control lines three injectors. Real time DTS data was acquired continuously in all three wells while DAS was acquired as per the injection program in one injector. DAS and DTS data were analyzed to quantify the changes in injection profile and rate in each ICV zone. This provided timely information needed for decisions related to manipulation of the ICV valves to ensure best utilization of the polymer.
Another example of fiber optics was a dip-in survey in a deep gas well with commingled production which covered stacked reservoirs. This was run in order to prove the concept of flow response on DAS/DTS signals in terms of gas flowing and liquid lifting detection. The acoustic signature observed was mainly due to gas entering the well through perforations. This was detected by DAS and DTS and allowed a qualitative inflow profile to be generated. The dip in survey proved the concept and allowed justification for the permanent installation of fiber optics behind casing. The objective of the permanent setup is to improve the sensitivity of the measurement and allow for better quantification of inflow per zone. In this paper, the approach of implementing fiber optic technologies in PDO is discussed with emphasis on value generation in the various assets. Additionally, the examples mentioned in this abstract are discussed in more details and based on the results, the way forward is described.
Buhassan, Shaker (Saudi Aramco) | Halder, Surajit (Saudi Aramco) | Tammar, Hassan (Saudi Aramco) | Beheiri, Faisal (Saudi Aramco) | Ahmed, Danish (Schlumberger) | Brown, George (Schlumberger) | MacGuidwin, Jeffrey Thomas (Schlumberger) | Haus, Jacques (Schlumberger) | Moscato, Tullio (Schlumberger) | Molero, Nestor (Schlumberger) | Manzanera, Fernando Baez (Schlumberger)
During the last 5 years, one of the most common matrix acidizing enhancement techniques used to improve zonal coverage in open hole or cased hole wells is conducting a distributed temperature survey (DTS) using coiled tubing (CT) equipped with fiberoptic and real-time downhole sensors during the preflush stage before the main stimulation treatment. This is used to identify high and low intake zones so the pumping schedule can be modified to selectively place diverters and acidizing fluids with a high degree of control. Once stimulation treatment has been completed, a final DTS analysis is performed to evaluate the zonal coverage and effectiveness of the diversion. Even though this technique has provided satisfactory results, alternative methods providing faster and more accurate understanding of flow distribution between the zones and laterals are needed, especially if there is limited temperature contrast between fluids and reservoir. Thus, an innovative coiled tubing real-time flow tool has been recently developed to monitor flow direction and fluid velocity. This measurement is based on direct measurement of the heat transfer from the sensors to the surrounding fluid using a calorimetric anemometry principle. The first worldwide use of this technology in a Saudi Aramco injector well showed this to be a viable new approach to downhole flow monitoring that can be used by itself or in conjunction with DTS, depending on the constraints of each individual intervention.