Santin, Y. (Halliburton) | Matar, K. (Halliburton) | Montes, E. (Halliburton) | Gorgi, S. (Halliburton) | Joya, J. (Halliburton) | Bu-Mijdad, M. (KOC) | Al-Mubarak, H. (KOC) | Al-Lafi, M. (KOC) | Al-Hamad, A. (KOC) | Al-Askar, H. (KOC) | Al-Shamaa, M. (KOC) | Al-Enizi, O. (KOC) | Bu-Qurais, A. (KOC) | Madhavan, S. (KOC) | Al-Dashti, M. (KOC)
Injection profile enhancement has been one of the primary objectives for an operator in Kuwait. Stimulation interventions in injector wells directly affect the enhancement of oil recovery in producer wells. This paper presents the application of a verifiable stimulation intervention in a water injector well to help achieve the operator's objectives.
The intervention presented several challenges. There was limited information available for the newly drilled carbonate formation under consideration in the Greater Burgan Field. Additionally, the fiberglass well tubing required significant attention before running in hole (RIH) with coiled tubing (CT). A high concentration of H2S was identified in Formation A; therefore, gas returns were also a potential issue. This paper discusses the methods used to help address these challenges. During this case study, real-time fiber-optic cable CT (RTFOCT) technology was applied in the fiberglass tubing injector well to determine initial well injection profile and adjust treatment accordingly. This technology includes a fiber-optic cable integrated into the CT pipe and a modular sensing bottomhole assembly (BHA).
RTFOCT technology allows for rigless operations and performs interval diagnostics, stimulation treatment, and evaluation in a single CT run. During this case study, the well injectivity increased by more than 100%. Diagnostics and evaluation were performed by analyzing the well thermal profile using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The BHA helped ensure accurate fluid placement during the treatment using real-time pressure, temperature, and depth-correlation sensors. The RTFOCT technology provided real-time downhole information that was used to analyze reservoir parameters, help ensure accurate fluid placement, and enable quick and smart decisions regarding the stimulation treatment stages based on the fluid intake in different zones. During injection, the heterogeneous fluid flow became homogeneous along the interval confirmed with the thermal-hydraulic model (THM). This helped reliably complete the intervention operations and delay possible water breakthrough in the producer wells and extended reservoir recovery.
Gonzalez, Santiago (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Rashidi, Hamad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Pandey, D. C. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Mula, Yousef (Kuwait Oil Company) | Safar, Abdualaziz (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Kandari, Jassim (Kuwait Oil Company) | Abdalla, Waeil Abdelmohen (Kuwait Oil Company) | Gorgi, Sam (Halliburton) | Patel, Dipen (Halliburton)
Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is running two pilot projects in South Ratqa Field to evaluate steam injection using cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam flooding (SF) methods. These projects are the first of their kind in KOC history and one of the major milestones in the North Kuwait Heavy Oil Development.
Two large-scale thermal pilot (LSTP) projects are located north and south of the South Ratqa Field, with the north running two different areas of 10 and 5 acres and well completion and the south running one area of 5 acres.
KOC has been injecting steam in these pilots in an unconsolidated high viscous formation since 2015, beginning with a CSS process that migrating to SF during the second half of 2017. A fundamental goal to help ensure success with this type of project is carefully monitoring the injected steam per well and per formation layer by installing fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) and pressure gauges in a portion of the wells; this goal was defined at the beginning of the project. For this purpose, 12 wells were drilled as observation wells and 6 idle wells were used for fiber-optic deployment to monitor the reservoir 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for the injection life of the pilots. The observation wells with DTS and pressure gauges were distributed along the pilots to cover a large predetermined observation area for the pilots.
The observation wells with DTS and pressure gauges in the north and south LSTP areas were also distributed along these pilots to cover a large area. The benefits of installing this technology in the pilots are to: To develop an understanding of steam breakthrough zones along the pay-zone interval of production wells To help improve the understanding of the steam injection profile for steam-injector wells To help improve the real-time temperature profile along the length of producer’s wellbore To develop an understanding of heat management during steam flooding
To develop an understanding of steam breakthrough zones along the pay-zone interval of production wells
To help improve the understanding of the steam injection profile for steam-injector wells
To help improve the real-time temperature profile along the length of producer’s wellbore
To develop an understanding of heat management during steam flooding
This paper discusses the success story between two companies installing DTS and thermal pressure gauges and includes a description of DTS, the installation procedure of downhole and surface equipment, real-time data transfer, and data analysis.
AlMahrooqi, S. (Petroleum Development Oman) | Guntupalli, S. (Petroleum Development Oman) | AlMjeni, R. (Petroleum Development Oman) | Choudhury, S. (Petroleum Development Oman) | Hashmi, M. Al (Petroleum Development Oman) | Abri, A. Al (Petroleum Development Oman) | Azri, N. Al (Petroleum Development Oman)
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes are key to Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) longer term business performance. To date, PDO is operating four commercial scale EOR projects and a number of pilots that are either ongoing or recently concluded. The EOR projects and pilots cover chemical and thermal EOR as well as miscible gas injection.
Successful EOR projects require robust long term strategic plans with built-in flexibility and seamless execution, in order to continuously de-risk associated uncertainties through proper testing and piloting. One of the key contributors to PDO's successful EOR journey has been successful monitoring and surveillance through acquisition of high quality surveillance data.
An alkaline surfactant polymer (ASP) pilot, first of its kind in PDO was recently concluded with encouraging results. Key pilot successes parameters included achieving reduction of oil saturation to less than 10% in one layer at the observation well. The challenge of saturation monitoring through salinity independent and carbon insensitive technique in EOR fields was addressed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) time-lapse cased hole logging through fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) casing. The other ongoing EOR pilot involves injecting polymer into a heavy oil bearing reservoir with a strong bottom aquifer drive. In this pilot, the key subsurface uncertainties are polymer injectivity, conformance and sweep efficiency. These uncertainties are being de-risked by deploying monitoring technologies such as distributed temperature sensing (DTS), distributed acoustic sensing (DAS), Pressure monitoring and time-lapse saturation logging based on both nuclear and electrical principals.
Some of the challenges in the miscible gas injection project include; gas breakthrough evaluation, reservoir connectivity, and gas sweep efficiency. These were assessed by implementing inter-well tracer test, production and time-lapse saturation loggings.
Surveillance in Thermal EOR project (cyclic steam soak, CSS) revolves around having dedicated temperature, pressure observation wells and systematic temperature surveillance across the field. Assessment of steam injection profile and steam quality has also been focus areas. The aim is not only to monitor areal and vertical sweep efficiency (of both steam and reservoir fluids) over time, but also to get leading signals for a proper reservoir management to maximize profitability. Further, pattern recognition from microseismic survey data helps monitoring the ‘cap-rock’ integrity and reservoir containment. Production logging in the ultra high viscosity oil zone still remains a challenge.
Detailed fiber optics reservoir monitoring was implemented in Thermal EOR in naturally fractured carbonate reservoir. The objectivities are the oil rim-management and safeguard the cap-rock integrity from fault re-activation
In this paper, PDO's experiences in handling EOR challenges and how different EOR monitoring and surveillance technologies were utilized will be presented. A recommended practice will be discussed based on PDO's experience.
Al Shoaibi, S. (Petroleum Development) | Kechichian, J. (Petroleum Development) | Mjeni, R. (Petroleum Development) | Al Rajhi, S. (Petroleum Development) | Bakker, G. G. (Petroleum Development) | Hemink, G. (Shell Global Solutions International B.V) | Freeman, F. (Shell Global Solutions International B.V)
Fiber Optics Distributed sensing technologies are evolving in the petroleum industry with its potential applicability in many areas of surveillance. Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) is embarking upon the implementation of this technology in various assets including both Gas and Oil fields. The vision of the company is to have the Fiber Optics distributed sensing technology as a surveillance tool in the Well and Reservoir Management (WRFM) toolbox and to become, where appropriate, a key element of its cycle. In comparison to conventional surveillance, fiber optic distributed sensing requires no well intervention and thereby reducing HSSE exposure and production deferment. In addition, the installed fibers can be used for multiple applications, e.g. hydraulic fracture performance monitoring and inflow performance monitoring. Recently, PDO trialed Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) and Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technologies utilizing both, dip-in surveys and permanent installation of fiber optics in the wells.
Fiber optic implementation in PDO included a polymer flooding trial in heavy oil, high permeability clastic reservoir with a strong bottom water aquifer drive. The objective was to monitor well conformance as the polymer injection progressed. The horizontal injectors were completed with pre-drilled liner and divided into four zones, each with an independent Inflow Control Valve (ICV). The well was completed with a multi-mode (MM) fiber pumped into control lines three injectors. Real time DTS data was acquired continuously in all three wells while DAS was acquired as per the injection program in one injector. DAS and DTS data were analyzed to quantify the changes in injection profile and rate in each ICV zone. This provided timely information needed for decisions related to manipulation of the ICV valves to ensure best utilization of the polymer.
Another example of fiber optics was a dip-in survey in a deep gas well with commingled production which covered stacked reservoirs. This was run in order to prove the concept of flow response on DAS/DTS signals in terms of gas flowing and liquid lifting detection. The acoustic signature observed was mainly due to gas entering the well through perforations. This was detected by DAS and DTS and allowed a qualitative inflow profile to be generated. The dip in survey proved the concept and allowed justification for the permanent installation of fiber optics behind casing. The objective of the permanent setup is to improve the sensitivity of the measurement and allow for better quantification of inflow per zone. In this paper, the approach of implementing fiber optic technologies in PDO is discussed with emphasis on value generation in the various assets. Additionally, the examples mentioned in this abstract are discussed in more details and based on the results, the way forward is described.
Buhassan, Shaker (Saudi Aramco) | Halder, Surajit (Saudi Aramco) | Tammar, Hassan (Saudi Aramco) | Beheiri, Faisal (Saudi Aramco) | Ahmed, Danish (Schlumberger) | Brown, George (Schlumberger) | MacGuidwin, Jeffrey Thomas (Schlumberger) | Haus, Jacques (Schlumberger) | Moscato, Tullio (Schlumberger) | Molero, Nestor (Schlumberger) | Manzanera, Fernando Baez (Schlumberger)
During the last 5 years, one of the most common matrix acidizing enhancement techniques used to improve zonal coverage in open hole or cased hole wells is conducting a distributed temperature survey (DTS) using coiled tubing (CT) equipped with fiberoptic and real-time downhole sensors during the preflush stage before the main stimulation treatment. This is used to identify high and low intake zones so the pumping schedule can be modified to selectively place diverters and acidizing fluids with a high degree of control. Once stimulation treatment has been completed, a final DTS analysis is performed to evaluate the zonal coverage and effectiveness of the diversion. Even though this technique has provided satisfactory results, alternative methods providing faster and more accurate understanding of flow distribution between the zones and laterals are needed, especially if there is limited temperature contrast between fluids and reservoir. Thus, an innovative coiled tubing real-time flow tool has been recently developed to monitor flow direction and fluid velocity. This measurement is based on direct measurement of the heat transfer from the sensors to the surrounding fluid using a calorimetric anemometry principle. The first worldwide use of this technology in a Saudi Aramco injector well showed this to be a viable new approach to downhole flow monitoring that can be used by itself or in conjunction with DTS, depending on the constraints of each individual intervention.
Qatar Petroleum (QP) is implementing intelligent oil field (IOF) concept in its operated field. This paper traces the development of projects which are completed as well as which are in progress. The paper also presents a case of how Dukhan oil field is well positioned to move towards a fully integrated intelligent oil field.
Successful IOF implementation can yield increased operational performance and extend field life through collaboration, optimized work processes and advanced technology.
Dukhan field present status was assessed using the maturity model and a roadmap for implementation was suggested. For the last ten years, Dukhan operations have moved steadily towards real time monitoring, control and infrastructure capabilities.
Introduction to Dukhan Field Facilities
Dukhan Field is located on the West coast of Qatar. The field is about 80 kilometers long and 8 kilometers wide. At present oil is produced from three reservoirs namely Arab C, Arab D and Uwainat with pressure maintenance provided by the Powered Water Injection System.
The field comprise of three sectors, which are from North to South - Khatiyah, Fahahil and Jaleha. Oil and gas are separated in four main degassing stations which are continuously manned namely Khatiyah North, Khatiyah Main, Fahahil Main and Jaleha. Main process in the field is stabilization and export of oil in addition to gas processing.
Dukhan Field Historical Development and Status of IOF Maturity
In December 2010, QP completed IOF Asset Assessment of its operated fields and produced a high level IOF implementation roadmap. Main focus areas were identified for improvement. Major potential benefits identified were: Better management of data, Real time data for quick decision making, Reduce operational cost and Improvement in oil recovery.
In early 2011 a list of short, medium and long term IOF opportunities were generated. In September 2011 major stake holder representatives worked together to create QP IOF vision and gave strategic direction to the IOF program. Senior management approval was obtained for the project and definition and design of IOF collaboration pilot were completed.
The vision statement agreed by all stake holders was ‘Increase operational performance and extend field life through collaboration, optimized work processes and advanced technology.'