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Iftikhar Choudhry, Bilal (ADNOC Offshore) | Khaled Abdelkarim, Islam (ADNOC Offshore) | Cantarelli, Elena (Schlumberger) | Johannes Ness, Knut (ADNOC Offshore) | Esposito Gonzalez, Juan (ADNOC Offshore) | Landaeta Rivas, Fernando Jose (ADNOC Offshore) | Torres Premoli, Javier (ADNOC Offshore)
On several occasions during drilling, the drill string or in cases of liner job the liner string comes across an overall regressive environment. By regressive environments, the condition of the well bore returning to its unconditioned and in some cases unstable phase, is implied. The objective of this paper is to see how the regression impacts the circulating pressures in particular and how best to anticipate such conditions to optimize/modify the practices. The circulating pressures in deteriorated/reverted cases start showing spikes in the actual values well beyond the predicted models subsequent to same flow rates at the same depths. Such deviations in the actual vs theoretical values can pose severe complications for the drilling and liner jobs. These resultant complications however can be countered with the help of hydraulic mapping and gel envelope estimation in conjunction with optimized tripping and circulation practices for the respective operations to ameliorate the conditions.
This paper explores the impact of regressive hole conditions ranging from constraints, operability, mechanical loads and fluid regimes. It builds upon that impact and delves into how best to utilize the tool of hydraulic mapping for smooth tripping and drilling operations in conjunction with the real time monitoring to define the operational envelopes. Delving into the dynamics of the hole conditions in regards to tripping and drilling operations across open hole, the paper seeks to build upon experience and reach an optimized mantle for tripping, drilling, circulation and conditioning operations in compromised hole conditions without any time delay or complication.
During the life span of the well operations, the open hole well bore conditions of the wells become adverse to continuing onwards with the operations without at first conditioning or changing the downhole states altogether. This is the modus operandi for the majority of operations but in instances where the ambient impact is time sensitive or where the operations altogether are too complex and constrained for that to be done, the well conditions worsen, and the complications related to the ongoing operations increase manifold, rendering the operation in extreme cases unfeasible altogether. This likelihood can however be circumvented with the help of preventive intervention tools such as hydraulic mapping.
There is no broad stroke solution to operational complications though, techniques and tools vary with each instance and are very case specific in both spectrum of definition and application. The most significant take away though, is how the incorporation of hydraulic mapping ensures the impending operational problems and complications are efficiently and specifically managed without any downtime or operational delay, on the fly. There are cases when the hydraulic and dynamic parameters have been mapped with upper limits built within the model yielding successful execution of operations against odds. In presence of rapid gelation or excessive gel breaking pressures against high differential formations, the practice of rotating prior to circulation or reciprocation prior to circulation are also determined with this tool.
Real time operations monitoring also play a pivotal role in benchmarking and tracking the operational parameters of interest that are critical for operations. In order to achieve that however, there needs to be a composite model for the real time broomstick to be in place that reflects the overall picture of the open hole well bore. The hydraulic mapping technique requires minor inputs from the routine operational practices but forms an integral tool that can help execute operations effectively in jeopardized environments, against staggering odds without forfeiting any of the operational parameters or objectives.
Managed Pressure Drilling is one of several techniques gaining traction on critical wells with very tight pore and fracture pressure windows. In order to stay within these narrow mud weight windows it is critical to understand the bottom hole pressures. Some efforts have been made to combine surface modeling with downhole measurements during the actual drilling phase utilizing data sent to surface by mud pulse telemetry. However, during liner running and cementing operations this data is generally not available. Due to the narrow annular clearances around the liner and the heavier slurries used during cementing the chances of exceeding the fracture gradient are greatly magnified. To compound this during most cementing operations in managed pressure situations the surface measurements, and therefore the associated models based off them may bear no relationship to what is happening downhole, particularly as the cement can be effectively in freefall inside the pipe. Measurements can be, and are, compared both before and after the actual job, but during the critical time of the actual cement job and displacement there is often no indication of what is actually happening downhole.
As stated above the telemetry system most utilized during drilling is mud pulse telemetry. However, as these systems occupy the pipe bore, and require a full mud column inside the pipe with a flow rate above a minimum threshold, then they are not used during cementing and liner running operations. To overcome these limitations a distributed measurement and acoustic telemetry network was run incorporated in the drillstring. This network sends data including annular and bore pressures, both from directly above the liner-running tool, but also distributed back along the string to surface. Acoustic telemetry transmits through the steel wall of the drillstring and therefore is independent of flow or fluid and can send data whilst tripping as well. Additionally the tools are fully through bore allowing the passage of cement darts and slurries with no real restriction. As the network also supplies interval measurements, then the passage of the different stages of the cement job can be seen as they move both down the pipe and back along the annulus.
This paper will show, through actual field results, what is really happening downhole in the critical time of running the liner to bottom and during the managed pressure cement job. Results will be compared with traditional surface measurements. We will describe how we used downhole and interval calculations of friction factors and equivalent circulating densities to model what is happening in and around the liner during the cement job. We will discuss the application of the data, and the resultant algorithms and calculations derived from this to affect subsequent jobs and to improve decision-making and therefore the safety and efficiency of these critical cement jobs.
As can be imagined the techniques thus described are new to the industry for real-time applications and further work is anticipated in delivery and interpretation of the results to further enhance this type of solution. A view forward will also be given in the conclusions on where this technology has the potential to go.
Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion. Blindness is the condition where we fail to see an unexpected event in plain sight. Illusions refer to misleading beliefs based on a false impression of reality. All three can lead to poor decisions regarding which work to undertake, what issues to focus on, and whether to forge ahead or walk away from a project. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders. Examples are provided including corporate, business unit and department case studies. This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets.
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This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders. Examples are provided including corporate, business unit and department case studies. Safety leadership focuses on the Human Factors (HF) which complement technical training to optimise reliability, safety, compliance, efficiency, and risks within a team-based environment. The IOGP laid down the HF skills and competencies required, and they form the basis for specialised O&G HF training's delivered by Mission Performance. This 1-day course reviews the key human factors but then also reviews what can be done to accelerate and scale operational roll-out for optimum and sustained impact, including integration with existing safety processes and (reporting) systems, refreshers, assessments, measurements, as well as the role of leadership and culture. Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion.
You have access to this full article to experience the outstanding content available to SPE members and JPT subscribers. To ensure continued access to JPT's content, please Sign In, JOIN SPE, or Subscribe to JPT After 6 years of using its custom-built drilling advisory system, Brazilian oil and gas company Petrobras has become increasingly confident in the technology’s abilities to help prevent many of the complex problems that challenge pre-salt drilling operations. Between the summer of 2014 and the end of 2019, the company credits the software innovation with the prediction of more than 100 drilling issues ranging from stuck-pipe events to drillpipe leaks. Petrobras said the early warnings prevented an additional 150 days of deepwater drilling which amounts to $130 million in savings, in a new paper (SPE 199077) published in July during the SPE Virtual Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference. More details on that front may be forthcoming since he said the operator is expanding the capabilities of the software to launch a full-fledged drilling optimization campaign next year.
You have access to this full article to experience the outstanding content available to SPE members and JPT subscribers. To ensure continued access to JPT's content, please Sign In, JOIN SPE, or Subscribe to JPT After 6 years of using its custom-built drilling advisory system, Brazilian oil and gas company Petrobras has become increasingly confident in the technology’s abilities to help prevent many of the complex problems that challenge pre-salt drilling operations. Between the summer of 2014 and the end of 2019, the company credits the software innovation with the prediction of more than 100 drilling issues ranging from stuck-pipe events to drillpipe leaks. Petrobras said the early warnings prevented an additional 150 days of deepwater drilling which amounts to $130 million in savings, in a new paper (SPE 199077) published in July during the SPE Virtual Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference. André Leibsohn Martins, a senior consultant with Petrobras, emphasized that the headline figure is “only from diagnosis” of drilling problems and does not include gains Petrobras has made in terms of optimizing the drilling process.
Rodrigues G. da Silva, Fabio (Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software) | de Souza Cruz, Marcelo (Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software) | Barduchi, Bruno (Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software) | Bellumat, Ernanda (Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software) | Vieira dos Santos, Maycon (Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software) | Barroso de Matos, Vinicius (Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software) | Gandelman, Roni Abensur (Petrobras) | Leibsohn Martins, André (Petrobras)
Given the complexity and high costs associated to ultra deepwater drilling, any effort to avoid unforeseen situations is beneficial. Initiatives to optimize the drilling process in real-time are extremely important. This article details the experience of 6 year operating a real-time software with the focus of anticipating the detection of potential drilling problems in challenging scenarios.
Based on transient numerical simulation (hydraulics, cutting transport, torque and drag, etc.), the software automatically identifies operational problems in real-time, providing to the rig crew anticipated information, so that, corrective and/or preventive actions can be taken. The software incorporate relevant experimental and theoretical research developed in multiple Brazilian universities and R&D Centers. It receives surface and downhole data in real-time, as well as, simulates comprehensive models (which considers real data, fluid properties, well and drilling column geometry as inputs) in order to analyze the current drilling status, by comparing real and calculated (expected) data, with quantitative criteria. Dedicated decision trees, validated by a representative group of senior drillers, provide reliable indication for problem alerts.
The present paper aims to detail the successes and the difficulties of detecting typical drilling problems in Campos and Santos basins (offshore Brazil). The process of algorithm development, validation and field implementation is detailed.
In July 2014, after almost 10 years of development, the use of the application started as a service conducted by a drilling engineering team, on a 24x7 service in Petrobras Real Time Support Center. Since then, it monitored every Petrobras offshore well. According to estimates, the economy by using this real-time program reached almost 150 rig days, which is equivalent to approximately US$ 130 MM. In 2016, The iniciative was granted the Technological Innovation ANP (Brazilian National Petroleum Agency) Award as recognition by its relevant results. This software is in a continuous development process, aiming to acquire new analyses in order to increasingly help the Petrobras drilling operations.
The novelty is the usage of numerical simulation in order to withdraw the subjectivity of a qualitative data analysis, avoiding the misinterpretation of a possible operational event. Present challenges include the proposal of hybrid solutions (modeling + machine learning) to tackle the identification of complex problems (such as false kicks, stuck pipe in salt drilling and circulation loss prediction).
Al Rubaii, Mohammed Murif (Saudi Aramco D&W) | Gajbhiye, Rahul N. (KFUPM) | Alyami, Abdullah S. (Saudi Aramco) | Glatz, Gunther (KFUPM) | Haq, Bashirul (KFUPM) | Aljohar, Abdulwahab S. (Saudi Aramco) | AlDogail, Ala S. (KFUPM)
Cuttings concentration in annulus that are generated while drilling due to the rate of penetration have several problems if it is high and has exceeded the maximum limit. Cuttings accumulation in annulus can lead to hole problems such as lost circulation coincident, stuck pipe incidents, and slow drilling rate which still a difficult challenge once it comes to plan, design and drill wells. If a proper hole cleaning efficiency can be achieved, that ultimately will enable the drilling team to have satisfied well drilling performance. To empower hole-cleaning performance, it must be engineered. In this paper, a new real time model of cuttings concentration in annulus (CCA) enhances drilling performance that will ensure optimized improvement and avoid stuck pipe problems. Knowledge from this paper will help in modeling and monitoring cuttings concentration in annulus while drilling precisely and therefore facilitate improving ROP without jeopardizing the well drilling performance. In addition, the paper spoke about the environment impact, drilling waste management and economics and wellbore instability related to cuttings concentration in annulus.
Huge number of models, techniques, charts, chemicals, tools, methods, and designs, experimental studies and to enhance the hole cleaning, but these things are just based on theory, lack proper experimental data, not compatible with drilling scenarios and operations. Cutting Concentration in Annulus (CCA) can provide a clue or a knowledge for maximum ROP that is save and compatible with rig equipment limitations such as the knowledge about maximum amount of cuttings generated while drilling that can be transported to surface and that the shale shakers can handle without causing hole troubles. The size of hole sections (OH), ROP, flow rate of mud pump (GPM), annular Velocity, Critical velocity (Vc), Drill pipe size (OD), cuttings rise velocity (Vcr), slip cuttings velocity (Vsc) and transport ratio (TR) properties in certain hole sections were collected and analyzed first to determine the effect of them on hole cleaning and ROP performance. The data selected are from the same hole size, formation type and mud type.
The relationships between the collected properties and CCA were t evaluated to determine how strong it is and demonstrate the significance of properties on estimating CCA. CCA was monitored controlled and evaluated to be able to have improved hole cleaning performance to enhancement of the drilling operations and decrease well drilling time. This is the first time to for hole cleaning optimization to lead for ROP improvement by using real time CCA model. The developed model has been validated using field data during drilling hole sections. It has shown high drilling rate performance in the hole sections tested and helped mitigate stuck pipe incidents, increased ROP by more than 52%.