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Moghazy, Sharief (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Gaviria, Wilmer (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Van Noort, Roger (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Kozlov, Anton (Blade Energy Partners, Ltd.) | Gonzalez Luis, Romar Alexandra (Blade Energy Partners, Ltd.) | Gabaldon, Oscar (Blade Energy Partners, Ltd.) | Hester, Clayton (Blade Energy Partners, Ltd.)
The objective of the paper is to present a case where a Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) and an MPD Well Design process was used to design and drill a deepwater exploration well with an expected pressure ramp and narrow drilling margins while acquiring valuable subsurface data. The expected pressure ramp and narrow drilling margins combined with the uncertainty of subsurface data presented significant challenges to the well design team. Based on previous experience in the region, reaching well TD safely and efficiently using conventional drilling methods was predicted to be challenging. The MPD Well Design process enabled MPD techniques, including constant bottom hole pressure and dynamic influx management, to be integrated into well design process. MPD was also identified as a critical tool to collect dynamic pressure data and help reduce overpressure uncertainty. The drilling program, rig specific operations, and contingency procedures were developed accordingly. MPD was used to successfully drill through a pore pressure ramp and address a well control event in conjunction with conventional methods. MPD was also an enabler to optimize the location of the casing/liner shoes by identifying the pressure profile based on real-time pore pressure data. This feature was a key advantage to drilling deeper than planned and resulted in effectively saving one casing string. The proposed well design included five casing/liners, with potential for two contingencies. With the implementation of MPD, the actual well was drilled with four casings/liners to a deeper TD and met all evaluation objectives under budget. This paper presents a case for using MPD and the MPD Well Design process and its full capabilities to optimize all aspects of a well delivery process, including well design, safety, and subsurface data acquisition.
The service companies plan to co-market an emerging well control system that can integrate with established managed-pressure-drilling components to enhance well construction safety and efficiency. The next step is to move toward optimization, then automation. An intelligent drilling optimization application performs as an adaptive autodriller. In the Marcellus Shale, ROP improved 61% and 39% and drilling performance, measured as hours on bottom, improved 25%. A real-time deep-learning model is proposed to classify the volume of cuttings from a shale shaker on an offshore drilling rig by analyzing the real-time monitoring video stream.
Fallah, AmirHossein (The University of Texas at Austin) | Gu, Qifan (The University of Texas at Austin) | Saini, Gurtej (The University of Texas at Austin) | Chen, Dongmei (The University of Texas at Austin) | Ashok, Pradeepkumar (The University of Texas at Austin) | van Oort, Eric (The University of Texas at Austin) | Karimi Vajargah, Ali (Occidental Petroleum Corporation)
Improper hole cleaning is a major cause of non-productive time (NPT) in drilling. Current hole cleaning practices are mostly based on experience, rules of thumb and simplistic calculations. Hence, they are not reliable and do not work as expected in all scenarios. There is the need for a robust, fast, and accurate approach to simulate cuttings transport, and provide reliable and useful estimations of the hole conditions in real-time.
In this paper, a transient cuttings transport model is presented for real-time hole cleaning simulations. The model solves the transient conservation equations using a drift-flux modeling approach, which is applied to describe the multiphase flow of cuttings and fluid in the wellbore. The model uses experimentally derived equations that account for the effects of pump rate, pipe rotation, eccentricity, fluid rheology, inclination, etc. on cuttings transport. A fast numerical solver is used to enable real-time simulations, while providing numerical stability that is crucial to maintain the modeling convergence under area discontinuities. Using small time-steps, the model captures pressure wave behavior, which is necessary for simulating managed pressure drilling (MPD) operations. Pressure-dependent mud density, non-Newtonian viscosity, and cuttings slip velocity models are used to estimate downhole parameters such as pressure, cuttings concentration, bed height, drilling fluid and cuttings velocities, etc. The model can provide a drilling crew with accessible real-time simulation results on the rig for monitoring the hole cleaning operation and preventing problems from happening.
Case studies are performed based on field experiments to analyze the effectiveness of the developed model on avoiding operational problems such as pack-off and stuck pipe. Results show that by monitoring the real-time cuttings concentration and bed height along the wellbore, the developed model can detect improper hole cleaning conditions and provide optimum drilling parameters to resolve problems, thereby minimizing NPT. The robust numerical scheme allows for simulations that are several times faster than the real-time operation on a standard desktop PC, providing the crew with enough time to take preventive actions. Clean-up cycles can also be simulated by the model to calculate and optimize the required parameters for optimum hole cleaning results. Required clean-up times are calculated for the field cases to ensure that cuttings are effectively removed from the wellbore before pulling out of hole and running casing. Moreover, MPD operations can be simulated using the model that consider the effects of cuttings concentration and bed blockage on the pressure profile.
The developed model can provide valuable real-time information on downhole conditions to the drilling crew during the drilling process and give adequate time to the crew to take timely corrective action if necessary. Moreover, the model can simulate the planned drilling process and calculate optimum drilling parameters to avoid hole cleaning problems.
This paper will discuss the Managed Pressure Directional Drilling fit-for-purpose solution deployed to meet the drilling challenges faced in 5 consecutive wells drilled in South Texas, USA. This innovative solution integrates a state-of-art Rotary Steerable System (RSS) with Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) technology. Drilling hazards such as well control events, simultaneous kick-loss, and stuck pipe were mitigated, and an improved drilling performance with a reduction of NPT as compared to other directional drilling systems.
The solution requires the integration of two highly technical disciplines, MPD and Directional Drilling. Hence, a Joint Operating & Reporting Procedure (JORP) and a defined communication protocol are crucial for effective execution. The solution is based on a rigorous Drilling Engineering process, including detailed offset wells analysis to deliver a comprehensive risk assessment & mitigation plan in collaboration with the Operator to tackle drilling hazards without compromising the directional drilling requirements.
This paper will summarize the 5 wells operations, the drilling optimization results, and the lessons learned from an integrated services point of view in terms of deliverables that made the difference on this project and allowed the Operator to achieve their objectives. In particular, the effective communication protocol between the directional drilling services, MPD services, and rig contractors to ensure safe operational alignment.
MPD (managed pressure drilling) is an important technique for challenging drilling operations especially in narrow operational windows, the IPC (Intelligent Pressure Control) system is equipped with the ultra-compact MPD manifold (L3.6m*W2.3m*H2.8m) with complete functionality of measurement & automatic control system, benefit the operators on footprint reducing for limited field space especially offshore operations. The 3D interface of IPC software provides operator with a perceptual intuition about current status of the equipment.
IPC system doesn’t rely on PWD sensor to acquire the downhole pressure data, with the unique algorithm integrated in iPWD module, the real time downhole pressure data could be generated without any downhole PWD sensor, the deviation between iPWD data and real PWD data is within 3%, which was proven in over 40 wells operation.
Nebula system is an add-on feature for IPC system, using cloud and IoT (Internet of Things) technologies, the Nebula could track the equipment’s specific location, working status and drilling parameter, providing statistical diagnosis based on data collected from field operations, which helps operators to make decisions quickly. The data uploaded to cloud could generate different reports according to end user’s requirements, to analyze drilling operation challenges or difficulties, this could be an intelligent tool which helps operators learn and understand the features of different blocks smarter via big data analysis. You can receive all data provided by Nebula system on your cellphone and PC at any time anywhere once connected to cloud station, always keep an eye on field operation and get the latest drilling parameters.
Managed pressure drilling (MPD) helps operators efficiently navigate through narrow pore pressure-fracture pressure windows. The challenges encountered during one onshore drilling campaign included pore pressure uncertainty, high pressure influxes, total losses and high incidences of differential sticking, which at times led to abandoning wells when drilled conventionally. The case study highlights how these challenges were counteracted with the implementation of a fully automated MPD system.
MPD is a safer and more effective drilling technique, as compared to conventional drilling, especially in wells with narrow drilling windows and downhole hazards. A fully automated, early kick detection and control system that enables nearly instantaneous, precise adjustments to the bottomhole pressure adds great value to the client's operations.
It has been observed that in wells with a narrow window, precise determination of downhole pressure margins (i.e. pore pressure, wellbore stability and fracture pressure) and precise control of bottomhole pressure are imperative to complete the well without well-control incidents. A fully automated MPD system helps to achieve these goals.
Prior to the start of drilling with MPD, the exact formation pressure is determined by conducting pore pressure tests, and then during drilling the target bottomhole pressure can be precisely adjusted almost instantly by adjusting the surface pressure at the MPD choke. The MPD system greatly reduces the time to stabilize well conditions when encountering well control problems or downhole losses.
This paper summarizes the implementation of the fully automated MPD system as a sophisticated tool to precisely control such situations instantly, saving time, associated mud costs and hence optimize the overall drilling process. This paper describes a few MPD milestones in drilling the 8 3/8-in. and 12-in. hole sections in the field despite of difficulties including total losses and high-pressure influxes leading to well control events. The primary objective of MPD application in this field was to drill to the liner landing point by adjusting the bottomhole pressure (BHP) in real-time to eliminate the problems caused by uncertainty in the over pressured target formation and minimizing or eliminating the downhole fluid losses in the lower formations.
The paper describes results from two case studies. In the first case, the well was drilled with a 1 pound per cubic foot (pcf) (0.13 ppg) narrow window, with accurate detection and control of influxes while mitigating losses. In the second case, initially the bottomhole mud-losses were minimized instantly and later the well was precisely displaced under partial losses to a lighter mud to save mud costs while maintaining well control.
Amorocho, Claudia (Weatherford International) | Galindo, Jhonny (Weatherford International) | Hernandez, Julian (Weatherford International) | Stich, Chad (Weatherford International) | Valecillos, Juan (Weatherford International) | Oliver, John (Merit Energy) | Scherer, Gary (Merit Energy)
This case study shows a cooperative implementation of managed pressure drilling (MPD), logging while drilling (LWD) and rotary steerable system (RSS) technologies to prevent non-productive time (NPT) while drilling through a section with a tight pressure window in a highly over-pressured reservoir in the US. Drilling risks were proactively reduced by providing real time data transmission for reservoir characterization and identification of critical well sections.
The bottom hole assembly (BHA) was designed to be able to provide high quality measurements according with specific priorities in real time formation characterization and post mortem evaluation. The data transmission was also optimized to be able to monitor the performance of the rotary steerable system (RSS) as well as provide logging measurements that allowed decision making in real time. The implementation of MPD and the continuous monitoring of pressure while drilling (PWD) data allowed to adjust the downhole pressure profile to minimize the impact of drilling hazards by early detecting micro influxes and micro losses reducing considerably their size and impact to control them.
Acquisition and transmission of high-quality logging while drilling data in real time allowed to identify the formations being drilled using Gamma Ray and resistivity logs anticipating the risk associated with each formation. The accurate identification of the pore pressure ramp, a consequence of using real-time MWD GR logging to correlate incoming formation tops with offset data, and the monitoring of the PWD data help to proactively respond to the imminent drilling hazards allowed to drill through these problematic sections using an underbalanced mud weight with the help of MPD which can adjust the pressure profile immediately reducing the risk of NPT. In addition to LWD and MPD technologies, the implementation and monitoring of RSS reduced the risk of downhole mechanical problems. Furthermore, acquired high-resolution sonic and density data from memory provided means to tie together the seismic data, in time, and LWD data, in depth, in order to make accurate predictions of incoming formations tops for future wells. This improved predictive capability to identify the depth range of the pore pressure ramp, while the correlative in-formation log signatures provided robust analysis of offset producing trends.
Drilling scenarios that otherwise deemed unattainable due to the big potential for drilling hazards, can currently be tackled safely while also optimizing capital expenditure through the implementation and monitoring of reliable LWD, MPD and RSS systems. The designed BHA allowed reliable data acquisition and the use of MPD enabled the versatility of instantaneously adjusting the downhole pressure profile leading to a flawless drilling operation with reduced NPT associated to pressure-related issues.
As part of the digital transformation in oil and gas industry, well construction move toward new efficient methods using digital twins of the wells. This paper will highlight how the drilling operations are monitored, how a digital twin of the well is utilized and how learnings are implemented for future wells.
A Digital Twin is a digital copy of assets, systems and processes. A Digital Twin in drilling is an exact digital replica of the physical well during the whole drilling life cycle. Its functionality is based on advanced hydraulic and dynamic models processing in real time. By utilizing real-time data from the well, it enables automatic analysis of data and monitoring of the drilling operation and offer early diagnostic messages to detect early signs of problems or incidents.
In the current study various actual operational cases will be presented related to different wells. This includes using digital twin during drilling under challenging circumstances such as conditions when using MPD techniques. Also, various diagnostic messages which gave early signs of problems during running in the hole, pulling out of the hole and drilling will be presented. High restrictions were detected using comparisons of real-time values and transient modelling results. These will be discussed.
Different real cases have been studied. Combining digital RT modelled and real-time measured data in combination with predictive diagnostic messages will improve the decision making and result in less non-productive time and more optimal drilling operations.
Ng, Mui Ted (Eftech Drilling Solutions) | Lum, Terry (Sabah Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd.) | Yeap, Fabian (Sabah Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd.) | Abdul Talib, Sa'aid Hazley (Eftech Drilling Solutions) | Zainal Abiddin, Mohamad Sukor (Eftech Drilling Solutions) | Hooi, E-Wen (Eftech Drilling Solutions)
As the search for hydrocarbon offshore runs deeper and farther from land, it is best we gear ourselves to embrace what it takes for delivering highly deviated deepwater development wells to push the frontiers of petroleum extraction. This paper discusses the monitoring and optimizations of deepwater wells operations in Malaysia by the Shell Malaysia Exploration and Production Real Time Operation Centre (SMEP RTOC).
The scopes of monitoring and optimizations discussed in this paper include: Hydraulics management in narrow pressure margin drilling, including modelling, optimization, measurement and monitoring of equivalent circulating density (ECD). Engineering support in pre-drill study for Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) application. Mitigation of drilling vibration in highly deviated wells, especially stick-slip vibration. Hole cleaning modelling, monitoring and optimization. Drilling roadmaps and database are archived by RTOC for future wells reference. Drilling operations performance tracking and benchmarking. 24/7 Top Tension Riser, Hawser and mooring lines tension monitoring.
Hydraulics management in narrow pressure margin drilling, including modelling, optimization, measurement and monitoring of equivalent circulating density (ECD).
Engineering support in pre-drill study for Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) application.
Mitigation of drilling vibration in highly deviated wells, especially stick-slip vibration.
Hole cleaning modelling, monitoring and optimization.
Drilling roadmaps and database are archived by RTOC for future wells reference.
Drilling operations performance tracking and benchmarking.
24/7 Top Tension Riser, Hawser and mooring lines tension monitoring.
Deepwater drilling operation costs are typically significantly higher than shallow water and land rig operations. This is partly due to higher rig rates in deepwater operations. In this case any reduction in Invisible Lost Time (ILT) and Non-Productive Time (NPT) may result in significant cost reduction. Like a safety net that catches anomalies that slipped the first line of defense, RTOC monitoring has the facilities and trained capabilities to oversee and optimize the operations in totality both during real time and post run. An investment in RTOC services in exchange of more cost efficient and safer operations will be justified in the paper.
Real Time Operation Centre (RTOC) is becoming more indispensable over the years. Hawk-eyeing operations in areas where attention is diluted by other tasks on the rig, could probably be the insurance needed in every future oil and gas drilling. The methods, procedures and processes in well operations will definitely advance with time and further developments and innovations in this subject will be closely followed within the industry.
Dobrokhleb, Pavel (Schlumberger) | Truba, Andrey (Schlumberger) | Borges, Sergio (Schlumberger) | Moiseenko, Ivan (Schlumberger) | Vorozheykin, Anatoly (Schlumberger) | Dotsenko, Anton (Schlumberger) | Evdokimov, Stanislav (Schlumberger) | Niverchuk, Andrey (Schlumberger) | Khusaenov, Timur (Schlumberger) | Kurasov, Alexander (Ob LNG) | Davletov, Renat (NOVATEK-YURKHAROVNEFTEGAS) | Galaktionov, Grigory (NOVATEK) | Glebov, Evgeny (NOVATEK) | Shokarev, Ivan (NOVATEK) | Grigoriev, Maxim (NOVATEK STC) | Sidorov, Dmitry (NOVATEK STC) | Zhludov, Alexey (Investgeoservice)
The PDF file of this paper is in Russian.
The Yurkharovskoye oil and gas condensate field is one of the main asset of PJSC NOVATEK. Two of the three productive levels (Cenoman and Valangin) are in the active development phase. The Jurassic reservoir, which is characterized by complex geology, high formation pressure (gradient ~ 2.0MPa / 100m) and a low fracturing gradient (FG), is currently in the exploration phase. In 2017, drilling of the first exploration well with a depth of 4855 m with a horizontal ending with multistage formation fracturing in the Jurassic formation was successfully completed. Successful completion of the drilling allowed not only to obtain valuable geological information, but also to choose an approach to the construction of such wells in the future.
Joint efforts of the field operator, drilling contractor and oilfield services company have developed a drilling system that included a full range of engineering solutions that ensure an efficient and accident-free well construction process: completion, directional drilling, bits, drilling fluids, geomechanics and managed pressure drilling (MPD). Previous experience in the construction of directional wells was associated with mud losses due to fracturing, blow outs and wellbore collapse. At the design planning stage, the well design was optimized, the completion system was developed, the formulations of high-density drilling muds with low rheology were selected, a choice of technologies was made and much more. Each stage of the well construction was worked out and a scheme of operative interaction between the parties was developed, which allowed timely correction of the work program based on an actual information.
Even at the design planning stage geomechanical modeling allowed design optimization and choose a safe trajectory of the well, and its update, based on the actual information, allowed to reduce the risks. Specially for this well, the formulation of the hydrocarbon-based solution was developed, which, despite its high density, was distinguished by low rheological properties. An important aspect of the preparation was the selection of bottomhole assembly and drilling regimes, which, on the one hand, should ensure efficient drilling, and on the other, generate the smallest possible equivalent circulation density (ECD). The use of MPD technology has made possible to maintain the ECD and ESP (equivalent static pressure) at the same level and to compensate for the pressure fluctuations during circulation and movement of the drill string while trips. To select the BHA, a special program complex was used to simulate the dynamics of its behavior at the bottomhole. Logging tools at BHA provided important real-time information that was used to manage the drilling process and make operational decisions. The hybrid rotary steerable system (RSS) allowed to drill the well in the riskiest intervals with a minimum angle and to provide a high dog leg and hit the target. The completion system for multistage fracturing with swellable packers required preparation of the wellbore and planning of all the necessary operations in order not to initiate hydraulic fracturing, wellbore collapse and failure to reach the target depth.
The project of NOVATEK-Yurkharovneftegaz is a bright example when modern technologies and effective interaction of participants allow successfully solving problems that were previously considered as difficult to implement and open new horizons for developing hard-to-reach deposits in extreme conditions. Successful experience gained during the project will ensure the efficient construction of wells in the field.