This interactive session is intended to inform attendees of the impact our personality tendencies have on how people see, manage and mitigate risk. Our research and practical application have shown that expanding the understanding of traditional human factors and human and organizational performance to include personality elements results in a further developed body of knowledge, enhancing traditional methods of reducing errors, events and incidents.
We have gathered, analyzed and verified over 500,000 personality tendency data points related to how people behave in given situations, communicate, lead and see and manage risk. Where most ‘personality typing’ regimens focus primarily on how people behave and interact with others, we have paid specific attention to how human performance error traps impact different personalities, how and why we follow or don't follow procedures, and what we can do about it. The data associated with "what makes it difficult for me to stop work" and "how could I get hurt" has been game-changing in understanding and managing risk at all levels of the organization. Many of the standard human and organizational performance error reduction tools do not effectively consider that different people need different types of information to effectively use the tools to reduce the probability of error.
The overall conclusion of the last ten years of gathering and analyzing the data is that different people with different personality tendencies see, manage and mitigate risk differently. Understanding this critical element will allow organizations to reduce errors and incidents, especially on critical or high-risk tasks. In addition, taking these elements into account drives more effective and usable procedures and processes that more people adhere to. Several methods will be discussed as to how attendees can immediately put into action some of the new understandings.
The 10,000 volunteers at Super Bowl 51 in Houston, TX used some of this understanding to improve interactions with visitors. Schools around the globe are using awareness and management of personality tendencies to reduce bullying, decrease absenteeism, improve engagement, and increase graduation potential.
Traditional safety, engineering, human factors, and human & organizational performance approaches do not effectively account for personality tendencies in a way that minimizes risk. From the oilfield, to electric power generation and distribution, to construction and manufacturing, these techniques have been used to effectively reduce and mitigate risk, improve engagement, and improve organizational safety culture.
C. Ferreira, Flavio (Schlumberger) | Stukan, Mikhail (Schlumberger) | Liang, Lin (Schlumberger) | Souza, Andre (Schlumberger) | Venkataramanan, Lalitha (Schlumberger) | Beletskaya, Anna (Schlumberger) | Dias, Daniel (Schlumberger) | Dantas da Silva, Marianna (Schlumberger)
Oil-water relative permeability and capillary pressure are key inputs for multiphase reservoir simulations. These data are significantly impacted by the wettability state in the reservoir and by the pore space characteristics of the rock. However, in the laboratory, there are several challenges related to the validation and interpretation of the special core analysis (SCAL) measurements. They are mostly associated with the core preservation or restoration processes and resulting wettability states. To improve dynamic reservoir rock typing (DRRT) process, a new model, describing the change of wettability fraction with depth in mixed-wet reservoirs, is proposed. The proposed model is based on solid physics describing the interactions between the rock grain surfaces and the fluids filling the pore space. First, the model considers the oil migration from the source rock into the originally water-wet reservoir and the corresponding capillary pressure rise, as the height above the free water level (HAFWL) is progressively increased. Then, oil-wet and water-wet fractions are estimated for different static reservoir rock types (SRRT) and different HAFWL, based on the wettability change potential of the rock-fluid system and oil-water capillary pressure curves. Additionally, mixed-wet capillary pressure and relative permeability curves are estimated for both oil displacing water (drainage) and water displacing oil (imbibition) processes, based on the estimated mixed-wet fractions and single-wet curves. We discussed the model assumptions and its parameters' uncertainties. We prepared a comprehensive sensitivity study on the impact of wettability variability with depth on oil recovery results. This study used a synthetic carbonate-reservoir simulation model, under waterflooding, by incorporating the concept of DRRT defined according to the different SRRT and estimated wettability fractions. The results showed a significant impact of wettability variability on oil in place and reserves estimates for waterflooding processes in typical complex, mixed-wet carbonate reservoirs, such as the ones found in the Brazilian Pre-Salt. We also discuss the potential impact of wettability change with depth on well logs like resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and dielectric logs. The proposed reservoir wettability model and its corresponding DRRT workflow is relatively simple and widely applicable, and may significantly improve reservoir simulation and wettability uncertainty analysis. It also explicitly identifies the required wettability parameters to be obtained from laboratory experiments and well logs. Finally, the proposed model may be integrated with special core analysis, well logs and digital-rock analysis.
Supplier Performance Management (SPM) is a process to improve the overall performance of Suppliers, promote better working relationships with Suppliers and remove poor performing suppliers from Prequalified Bidders List. Once SPM is in place Supplier Performance can be tracked, analyzed and shared with confidence. Owner company can clearly identify poor performing Suppliers and work with them to improve their performance. The steps involved in achieving an effective SPM are Measure Supplier performance, Analyze available data, Communicate/Engage Supplier and work for tangible Improvement. What is Supplier Performance Management (SPM)?
Zadeh, Kamran Akbar (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Tatavalli-Mittadar, Nirmal (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Abd-Rahman, A-Sukaimy (Brunei Shell Petroleum Co) | Jain, Shekhar (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Ashtekar, Sunil (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | McGregor, Stuart (Brunei Shell Petroleum Co) | Degaleesan, Sujatha (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.)
Restriction or blockage of flow path due to waxy deposits is a global issue in the oil and gas production. This undesirable flow assurance issue leads to increase in production deferment and OPEX for mitigation and frequent intervention. It may also result in huge CAPEX for pipeline sections replacement due to untreatable blockages.
Despite the current prevention and mitigation strategies in place, wax deposition cannot be fully eliminated. Existing remediation technologies can be broadly classified to mechanical, thermal, and chemical-based treatments. These also have some limitations such as availability, cost, deferment and effectiveness. Today, most effective solutions are often a combination of mechanical and chemical which are expensive in terms of cost and may result in additional deferment time. As such, the development of more effective remediation strategies is of great importance.
Solvent-based cleaning can be relatively less expensive if it is a viable option. However, experience suggests that conventional solvents such as xylene are generally not that effective in dissolving and breaking wide range of waxy deposits with varying compositions.
Enhanced solvent-based remediation is a novel approach with the focus to balance performance, cost, and safety for field applications. Based on this approach, understanding the field deposit, optimizing solvent's performance in the lab under representative field conditions, selecting a solvent that balances performance with cost and safety, scaling up from lab to the field conditions based on the field's limitations, and proper deployment of the selected solvent in the field play important roles in effective remediation of deposits.
In this work, the enhanced solvent-based remediation approach and the lab procedure for primary screening of solvents are described. In addition, the procedure for cleaning a flowline that was restricted by wax deposit in an onshore field in South-East Asia is explained. The results of this successful field application that led to increase in net oil production and OPEX saving are also discussed.
Reservoir monitoring carried out using previous-generation pulsed neutron logging tools worked well in ideal borehole conditions. However, evaluations were complicated in non-ideal borehole environments, such as gas in the borehole, which affects capture cross section, sigma, and thermal neutron porosity measurements, changing borehole fluid holdup, which confuses carbon-oxygen interpretation, and identifying hydrocarbon type using only neutron porosity when oil density and hydrogen index are very low or open hole (OH) data are unavailable.
A new-generation pulsed neutron logging tool has been introduced that benefits from a high output neutron generator, two LaBr3 detectors, one yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) detector, one neutron source monitor, and an improved acquisition sequence. It provides self-compensated measurements of sigma and thermal neutron porosity, along with full capture and inelastic spectroscopy, including total organic carbon (TOC) and carbon-oxygen ratios. This tool also measures a new formation property called the fast neutron cross section (FNXS), which provides a gas saturation estimate independent of conventional methods. All measurements are recorded in the same logging pass, thus reducing overall logging operation time.
Pulsed neutron measurements were acquired in lateral wells using the new generation tool in the A field, onshore Abu Dhabi. Through lateral sections with changing oil, water, and gas holdups in the borehole, and in changing completion environments, robust sigma and neutron porosity measurements were acquired with the help of the automatic self-compensation algorithm. Neutron porosity helped quantify gas saturations where the OH data are available and of good quality. However, in zones where it is not possible to use the neutron porosity by itself (for example, in zones with missing or uncertain OH results), the FNXS measurement provided an independent estimate of gas presence and saturation. FNXS of brine (7.5 1/m), calcite (7.5), and oil (6.0 to 7.0), are similar and strongly contrast with the FNXS of gas (1.5 to 2.5). Thus, the measurement is insensitive to porosity by itself but highly sensitive to gas presence. A crossplot of thermal neutron porosity (TPHI) and FNXS provides a robust estimate of gas saturation in wells where OH results are uncertain or not available.
This paper presents, through multiple examples, a first comprehensive look at the various challenges faced while logging lateral wells in a light oil environment and showcases how a combination of self-compensated measurements coupled with the new measurement of FNXS can make data interpretation more robust in complex borehole and completion environments.
Lv, Mingsheng (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Al Suwaidi, Saeed K. (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Ji, Yingzhang (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Swain, Ashis Shashanka Sekhar (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Al Shehhi, Maryam (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Luo, Beiwei (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Mao, Demin (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Jia, Minqiang (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Zi, Douhong (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Zhu, Jin (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Ji, Yu (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd)
Western Abu Dhabi locates in the west of Rub Al Khali Basin, which is an intra-shelf basin during the Late Cretaceous. The Shilaif source, Mishrif reservoir and Tuwayil seal forms one of the Upper Cretaceous important petroleum systems in the western Abu Dhabi Onshore. However, less commercial discoveries have been achieved within Mishrif Formation during the past 60 years since the large scale structures were not developed in western Abu Dhabi and the stratigraphic traps have not been attracted attention.
This study aims to investigate the exploration potential of both Mishrif structural and stratigraphic traps. It provided detailed study on Shilaif source rock, Mishrif shoal/reef reservoir and Tuwayil seal capability. Oil-source rock correlation, reservoir predication and basin modeling have been carried out for building Mishrif hydrocarbon accumulation model by integration of samplings, wire loggings and 2D&3D seismic data. Shilaif Formation is composed of laminated, organic-rich, bioclastic and argillaceous lime-mudstones and its generated hydrocarbon migrated trending to high structures. Three progradational reefs/shoals in Mishrif Formation were deposited along the platform margin, which are characterized by high porosity and permeability. Tuwayil Formation consists of 10-15ft shale interbedding with tight sandstone, acting as the cap rock of Mishrif reservoirs.
Mishrif hydrocarbon accumulation mechanism has been summarized as a model of structural background controls on hydrocarbon migration trend and shoal/reef controls on hydrocarbon accumulation. It is consequently concluded that Mishrif reefs/shoals overlapping with structural background are the favorable exploration prospects, and oil charging is controlled by heterogeneity inside a reef/shoal, the higher porosity and permeability, the higher oil saturation. Two wells have been proposed based on the hydrocarbon accumulation model, and discovered a stratigraphic reservoir with high testing production. This discovery encourages a new idea for stratigraphic traps exploration, as well as implicates the great exploration potential in western Abu Dhabi.
Summary: Abrupt and large changes in the earth properties (velocities) can cause conversion of the compressional waves to converted mode energy. Such converted waves could be recorded on the towed streamer seismic data. If they are not identified and removed early they can mislead the interpretation. In this paper, we are showing the successful application of the converted wave attenuation (CWA) workflow on the seismic data from the Mediterranean See, Offshore Egypt. Data is acquired with latest broadband technique and went through several iterations of velocity model building. The presence of the strong converted waves has threatened to undermine velocity model building and interpretation effort. The benefit of presented workflow is that it identifies and models the converted energy pre-stack pre-migration, however the subtraction is done pre-stack post-migration. Post-imaging subtraction gives improved flexibility in signal protection and improvements in the S/N ratio, especially in the areas where the separation of the converted more and compressional energy is small. Presented workflow is universally applicable to any areas where the converted modes occur.
Haddad, Mohamed (ADNOC Offshore) | Rashed Al-Aleeli, Ahmed (ADNOC Offshore) | Toki, Takahiro (ADNOC Offshore) | Pratap Narayan Singh, Rudra (ADNOC Offshore) | Gumarov, Salamat (Schlumberger) | Benelkadi, Said (Schlumberger) | Bianco, Eduardo (Schlumberger) | Mitchel, Craig (Schlumberger) | Burton, Phil (Schlumberger)
Injection of drilling waste into subsurface formations proves to be an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective waste management method that complies with zero discharge requirements. It has now become the technology of choice in offshore Abu Dhabi.
The aim of cuttings reinjection (CRI) is to mitigate risks associated with subsurface waste injection and reduce cuttings processing time and cost. In order to meet these goals, a cuttings reinjection subsurface assurance methodology was developed to improve cuttings processing and continuously monitor drilling waste injection operations.
Preparing for CRI operations required extensive drilling cuttings slurry testing to minimize processing time and develop optimum particle size distribution to reduce cost and increase the injected waste volume. The improvements were accompanied by downhole pressure and temperature monitoring of the injection well, thus facilitating analysis of injection pressures. Fracture containment was verified through a combination of pressure decline analysis, periodic injectivity test, temperature survey, and periodic modelling for fracture waste domain mapping. A backup injection well was used also as an observation well to monitor the pressure signitures in the injection formation.
More than 1 million barrels of drill cuttings and associated drilling waste have been safely and successfully disposed of into a single injection zone of CRI well over three years of operations.
The cuttings reinjection subsurface assurance method optimizes grinded cuttings particle size distribution, detects and identifies potential risks to provide mitigation options to prolong the life of the injector.
The proactive subsurface injection monitoring-assurance program was built into the fit for purpose CRI injection procedure to continually avoid injecting any rejected hard material, improve and update the process as per subsurface injection pressure responses, thus reducing processing time and cost, mitigating injection risks, and extending the injection well life.
This paper presents the unique and technically challenging cuttings slurry properties design and pressure interpretation experience learned in this project; the enhancement of cuttings processing helped increase injection volumes and an in-depth interpretation of fracture behavior which behaved like a risk-prevention tool with mitigation options. Significant enhancement was developed in slurry treatment procedures to avoid injectivity loss and maximize the disposal capacity.
Azraii, Azraii Fikrie (PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD) | Adhi, Adhi Naharindra (PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD) | Hui Chie, Thian Hui Chie (PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD) | Claire, Claire Chang (PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD) | Ridzuan, Ridzuan Shaedin (PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD) | Roh, Cheol Hwan (PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD) | Zarir, M. Zarir Musa (PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD) | Firdaus, Firdaus Bidi (HALLIBURTON)
Sarawak, Malaysia first offshore high rate dry gas field has an over pressured reservoir. Successful pressure control during drilling required the use of barite in the water based drilling mud in PMCD mode inside carbonate. Barite is very abrasive and is insoluble in any acid or solvent. Any barite left in the reservoir due to mud losses has to be produced back to surface after completing the wells. This cleanup is crucial for the safety and longevity of permanent facilities, especially when high rate gas wells are involved; due to the high rate of impact of any solids that may be produced with the gas. It is also critical to design the cleanup job carefully to ensure proper equipment and safety measures are taken to avoid washouts and related safety hazards.
To ensure solids free production from day one, a procedure was implemented and successfully executed during the development of this first offshore high rate high-pressure sour gas field. This was achieved by using the tender rig as a main support and complementing the safety with the incorporation of the selected well testing equipment management system. In addition to the proper equipment, a detailed cleanup procedure, which covered systematic production ramp up and defined solids free criteria, was implemented from well owner or asset. So far, this well cleanup setup and program has been implemented on several wells on platforms with minor erosion and no safety issues.
One platform with several wells is already producing and is flowing trouble free. This paper will describe the details of the setup of the rig facilities to clean these barite fluids from the wells, and the solids control equipment used and the cleanup procedure.
Iron Sulfide deposition in production facilities is one of the flow assurance issues in oil and gas industry. It can cause tubing blockage, interfere well intervention, and reduce production in both sour oil and gas wells. Mechanical descaling is currently applied, but it is time consuming and costly. Dissolvers based on concentrated hydrochloric (HCl) acid have high dissolving power, but with a limited applicability due to overwhelming drawbacks such as corrosion and H2S generation. Low corrosive, non-acid chemical dissolvers were developed. However, the dissolution rate is low and is not comparable to concentrated hydrochloric (HCl) acid performance.
Following the development of the iron sulfide dissolver presented in ADIPEC 2017, this work focuses on the improvement of the kinetics of iron sulfide dissolution, the kinetic factors of the dissolution rate. The non-acidic iron sulfide dissolver was used in lab dissolution tests. The effect of dissolution temperature, particle size, agitation, and ratio of volume of dissolver and mass of scale, were studied. Scale dissolution tests at temperature between 40°C and 125°C were carried out to evaluate the dissolution rate of pyrrhotite scale particles of sizes between 10 and 80 mesh. The ratios of volume (ml) of dissolver and scale particles (gram) were tested from 10:2 to 20:1. The agitation was from static to 160 rpm. The tests lasted for 6 hours. The dissolving amount was calculated by weight difference between the initial and final solids.
The results show that the kinetics of pyrrhotite dissolution can improve significantly at high temperature due to the increase in the thermodynamic of dissolution, and by reducing the particle size to increase the contact surface area of scale particles. The increase of volume ratio of dissolver with the mass of scale particles and increasing agitation have limited effect on the kinetics of scale dissolution under the test conditions.
This study provides and ranks the kinetic factors for iron sulfide dissolution. It gives a guideline to improve iron sulfide dissolution during field application using non-acid based iron sulfide scale dissolver.