|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
Casing and tubing strings are the main parts of the well construction. All wells drilled for the purpose of oil or gas production (or injecting materials into underground formations) must be cased with material with sufficient strength and functionality. Casing is the major structural component of a well. The cost of casing is a major part of the overall well cost, so selection of casing size, grade, connectors, and setting depth is a primary engineering and economic consideration. Conductor casing is the first string set below the structural casing (i.e., drive pipe or marine conductor run to protect loose near-surface formations and to enable circulation of drilling fluid).
The jackup-type mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) has become the premier bottom-founded drilling unit, displacing submersibles and most platform units. The primary advantage of the jackup design is that it offers a steady and relatively motion-free platform in the drilling position and mobilizes relatively quickly and easily. Although they originally were designed to operate in very shallow water, some newer units, such as the "ultra-harsh environment" Maersk MSC C170-150 MC, are huge (Figure 1) and can be operated in 550 ft in the GOM. This type of unit can be commercially competitive only in the North Sea and in very special situations. Figure 1--Maersk's giant jackup (largest in the world) designed for deepwater use (550 ft in the GOM) and harsh North Sea environment.
Completion systems are the components necessary to complete the well after it is drilled and prepare it for production. There are many completion options available to oil and gas producers. Many of the basic components appear similar to those used in the past, yet they have been vastly improved, and their performance has been optimized to suit numerous environments. There are several keys to designing a successful completion system and selecting components that are fit for purpose for both the downhole environment and application. Consideration must be given to the various modes under which the completion must operate and the effects any changes in temperature or differential pressure will have on the tubing string and packer.
The table also includes an indication of the primary uses and benefits, along with the cements that they can be used with. The primary effects of the cement admixtures on the physical properties of the cement, either as a slurry or set, are presented in Table 2. This is a quick reference, and individual additives in a given category may not agree in total with the effects as given. It is also typically defined for individual additives, the properties and effects of which can be modified when additive combinations are used.
Cement is used to hold casing in place and to prevent fluid migration between subsurface formations. Cementing operations can be divided into two broad categories: primary cementing and remedial cementing. The objective of primary cementing is to provide zonal isolation. Cementing is the process of mixing a slurry of cement, cement additives and water and pumping it down through casing to critical points in the annulus around the casing or in the open hole below the casing string. Zonal isolation is not directly related to production; however, this necessary task must be performed effectively to allow production or stimulation operations to be conducted.
Project management is quite different from engineering. An engineer is normally responsible only for his or her own work product and generally deals with the reactions of inanimate substances that follow the laws of physics. A project manager is required to be responsible for the quantity, quality, and timeliness of work products that generally do not follow any physical laws. To succeed as a project manager, the most important thing is to ensure good communication within the project team. Communication can be accomplished in many forms (verbal, written, formal, and informal), but one size does not fit all, and the project manager is responsible for communications concerning the project and its execution.
Techniques described in this page are classic methods for describing immiscible displacement assuming equilibrium between injected gas and displaced oil phases while accounting for differing physical characteristics of the fluids, the effects of reservoir heterogeneities, and injection/production well configurations. Included are modifications to typical displacement equations, evaluating sweep efficiency, and calculating performance. In simple calculations, the reservoir is treated in terms of average properties for volume of rock, and production performance is described on the basis of an average well. Black-oil-type reservoir simulation models use essentially these same techniques but, by means of 1D, 2D, or 3D cell arrays, account for areal and vertical variations in rock and fluid properties, well-to-well gravity effects, and individual well characteristics. More complex compositional models account for nonequilibrium conditions between injected and displaced fluids and can be used to describe individual well streams in terms of the compositions of the produced fluids.