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The International Gas Union's (IGU) recent report on world LNG markets found that the trade increased by only 1.4 mt to 356.1 mt compared to 2019 supported by increased exports from the US and Australia, together adding 13.4 mt of exports. Asia Pacific and Asia again imported the most volumes in 2020, together accounting for more than 70% of global LNG imports. Asia also accounted for the largest growth in imports in 2020--adding 9.5 mt of net LNG imports vs. 2019. While 20 mtpa in liquefaction capacity was brought on stream in 2020, all in the US, startup of several liquefaction trains in Russia, Indonesia, the US, and Malaysia were delayed as a result of the pandemic, according to the report. The only project that was sanctioned in 2020 was the 3.25-mtpa Energia Costa Azul facility in Mexico, and in early 2021 Qatar took final investment decision (FID) on four expansion trains totaling 32 mtpa.
Wijaya, Aditya Arie (Halliburton) | Wu, Ivan Zhia Ming (Halliburton) | Parashar, Sarvagya (Halliburton) | Iffwad, Mohammad (Halliburton) | Yaakob, Amirul Afiq B (Petronas Carigali) | Tolioe, William Amelio (Petronas Carigali) | Sidid, Adib Akmal Che (Petronas Carigali) | Ahmad, Nadhirah Bt. (Petronas Carigali)
Abstract In recent years, the development of frontier areas brings added challenges to formation evaluation, especially thinly bedded reservoirs. It is challenging to evaluate such reservoirs due to the low resistivity values and high shale volume, which masks the contrast between water and hydrocarbon zones. Using conventional approaches in these types of reservoirs will underestimate the hydrocarbon potential and reserves estimates. A study has been carried out of the thin-bed laminated reservoir in B-field using the tensor model technique to assess the hydrocarbon potential. Additional data from borehole imaging and sonic logs are critical for enhancing the evaluation of hydrocarbon potential and complements the result of the tensor model evaluation. The study was conducted to calculate the sand resistivity and sand porosity using a combination of the tensor model and the Thomas-Stieber model. The tensor model uses acquired horizontal and vertical resistivities, while the Thomas-Stieber model uses the calculated shale volume and porosity. One of the main parameters in the tensor model is shale resistivity, which upon analysis, varies across many shale sections in the well. This uncertainty is reduced by picking multiple shale resistivity values based on borehole image facies analysis. The VPVS ratio technique and Brie’s plot using compressional and shear travel time are used as a qualitative analysis that indicates the same gas-bearing interval. The tensor model calculations improve hydrocarbon saturation by a range of 4-21%, depending on sand thickness and shale volume, which increases the net to gross by more than 20%. The borehole image facies analysis helps to objectively pick the shale resistivity parameters to avoid subjective interpretation and underestimating the pay. A qualitative approach using sonic data helps to identify the potential gas-bearing interval and complement the previous tensor model interpretation. Although all interpretation methods indicate a similar gas-bearing interval that correlates with the mudlog total gas reading, the combination of the tensor and Thomas-Stieber method with image constrained shale resistivities gives the most definitive gas saturation and net pay The novelty of this study is to showcase two things. First is the application of combined tensor and Thomas-Stieber model in a laminated reservoir, with image constrained shale resistivity for improved gas saturation and net pay. The second is to highlight the use of gas-sensitive sonic data to confirm the gas saturated interval.
Southeast Asian operators sit in the middle of the world's fastest growing economic region where energy demand is expected to double over the next 20 years. But this picture of growth has been juxtaposed with the region's declining oil and gas production--most of which comes from offshore fields--that has left it increasingly reliant on imports from overseas suppliers. The degree to which operators in Malaysia and Indonesia can help counter this trend was the focus of an executive panel last week at the International Petroleum Technology Conference (IPTC). While acknowledging that the region is marked by challenging geologies and mature offshore fields, the executives spoke highly of what the future holds. Several things underpin their optimism, not least of which is the region's rising demand for natural gas.
Floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) allows LNG to be processed hundreds of kilometers away from land to unlock gas reserves in remote and stranded fields previously uneconomical to monetize. The complete paper describes the operator's fast-tracking of a 450-km FLNG unit relocation from Sarawak to Sabah offshore Malaysia. The time from selecting the new field to unloading LNG at the new location was 13 months. The complete paper discusses pre-execution and engineering studies, relocation preparation and execution, and challenges encountered, including timeline, cost minimization, and manning. Since 2016, Petronas has operated its first floating LNG production, storage, and offloading facility offshore Sarawak.
Malaysia's Petronas this week added another first to its list of accomplishments in pioneering LNG production using floating (FLNG) technology. Petronas became the first global energy company to own and produce from two floating LNG (FLNG) facilities, following the successful first shipping of LNG from its PFLNG DUA facility on 24 March. The Seri Camar LNG carrier transported the cargo to Thailand. PFLNG DUA works in deep water and can reach gas fields in water depths of up to 1500 m; its capacity is 1.5 mtpa of LNG. It passed subsea commissioning and produced first LNG in February.
Abdul Razak, Mohamad Anas (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Abdul Rajab, Ahmad Zawawi (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Chew, Jay Sern (Hydrawell Intervention AS) | Chesson, John Brian (Hydrawell Intervention AS) | Lim, Susin (Vantage Energy Group)
Abstract Malaysia's government recognizes the high risk that aging idle wells pose to its health, safety and environment and has developed some of the most stringent plug and abandonment, P&A, regulations to protect its future. Corroded casing strings and sustained casing pressure are common issues on its multi-decade old platforms and a risk-based design philosophy has been adopted to balance risk mitigation and operational costs, while still ensuring an eternal barrier. Both conventional rigs as well as rigless hydraulic workover units, HWU, are being used for P&A operations. This study considers the barrier element rationale applied in four offshore wells that were plug and abandoned by cap-rock restoration Perforate, Wash, Cement, PWC, barrier plugs. It also considers the operating window of a jet-based PWC technology to understand the challenges and opportunities for further optimization during HWU operations. Cap rock restoration utilizing both cup-based and jet-based PWC technology is being widely applied throughout Malaysia as a cost-effective alternative to casing section milled barrier plugs. Malaysia's P&A regulation allows isolation at the cap rock level, whereby "Contractor shall adhere to the Cap-Rock Abandonment Applicability Flowchart to identify technically and commercially acceptable candidates for this well abandonment method." The PWC method enables cap rock restoration in a single trip process; whereby the casing annulus is accessed by TCP guns to allow for annular debris to be effectively washed prior to cement plug placement. The process is not limited only to TCP guns; as a mechanical casing perforator was utilized in a shallow cased hole section of one of the wells to avoid damaging the outer casing. A custom BHA was developed and tested to match the cuts from the mechanical perforator. Specially oriented, rotating, wash jets were configured to maximize the annular access during the washing process. The washing effectiveness of this new BHA was confirmed by the massive amount of annular debris that was observed over the surface shakers. Operations were conducted offshore with a HWU with limited infrastructure and operating capability compared to a conventional rig. A PWC candidate screening matrix was applied early during the planning phase to manage rig limitation, well condition and operational risk to ensure successful barrier placement. All cap rock barriers were successfully installed and tested, and no sustained annular pressure remained in any of the wells. Fewer PWC plugs were required than originally planned, due to strict adherence to the Caprock Restoration Plan Decision Tree, resulting in significant cost savings for the project. The detailed time breakdown of the HWU operations provides useful insight into the operational efficiencies and unplanned events during the HWU campaign and lessons learned are shared from the project.
Abstract Drilling operation in Malaysia are typically from offshore, thus offshore weather condition does contributed to the success or delay of a drilling operation. Wait on Weather (WOW) especially during monsoon season in Malaysia has impacted Operator's drilling operation, thus incurring additional cost to Operator. Monsoon season in Malaysia is typically from November to February every year. This paper will discuss and share the statistics of actual WOW happening from 2008 to 2019 in Malaysia water especially for jack-up rig (JUR) and tender assisted drilling rig (TADR) which are two common rigs in Malaysia water. The data was collected from one of the drilling operator in Malaysia. These data will be of assistance to Operator in better planning and executing drilling operation with the actual statistics as the risk factor. WOW is considered as non-productive time (NPT), thus NPT data gathering from Operators in Malaysia water were conducted. Data was then filtered to achieve the WOW data. WOW data was segregated between region in Malaysia which are Peninsular Malaysia (PM), Sabah (SB) and Sarawak (SK) as well as rig type, which are JUR and TADR. Distribution analysis were made to calculate the average and observe the maximum numbers of actual WOW occurrence. Further analysis was made to zoom into monsoon season in Malaysia which typically in November to February. 11 years data is generally good coverage for the analysis since it covers the up and down of oil and gas industry. Analysis was also done for both mob/demob and operation stage where it can be observed that WOW for mob/demob stage during monsoon season is significantly higher compared to operation stage. At the end of the analysis, the average or maximum numbers of WOW will be shared, and it will be used as recommendation for future projects to consider these figures as WOW risk factor and embed in the planning stage. This paper will help not only Operators in Malaysia water but the host authority on understanding the WOW risk factor during monsoon season. As WOW is not something that can be predicted, utilizing the standard results from actual statistic data for the past 11 years will assist engineers to incorporate the WOW risk factor during planning and execution stage. Rig and project sequencing can be optimized with understanding of WOW impact thus reducing the value leakage during operation due to WOW.
Abstract Based on the data of drilling rigs working in Malaysia from 2014 to 2020 as per shown below, it can be concluded that, historically the demand for rig in Malaysia is very dynamic and it was influenced by mainly the brent price albeit a delayed impact. The red line showed the Brent Price. With the dynamic of the demand, a systematic and well-organized methodology to develop an integrated rig sequence was essential. It is to ensure all rigs were planned accordingly and successfully acquire in time to ensure the projects can be executed as per expectation. A glimpse on the outcome of having an integrated planning between all the parties related such as host authority, project planners, procurement team, and rig planning team together with a right tool is essential to sequence and plan the projects and the drilling rigs requirement.
Kadir, Masran (EnQuest) | Rusli, Muhammad Ruzwin (EnQuest) | Samsudin, Bukhari (EnQuest) | Rahman, Saim (EnQuest) | Norizan, Sheereen (EnQuest) | Wee, Thierry (EnQuest) | M. Johan, M. Alham (EnQuest) | Al Zayani, Sirag (EnQuest) | Roslan, Mohd Razeif (PETRONAS MPM) | Mahadi, Khairul Azmi (PETRONAS MPM) | Salleh, Muhammad Zulkhairi (PETRONAS MPM)
Abstract The Seligi field, located 240 kilometers offshore peninsular Malaysia in the Malay basin was discovered in May 1971 and is one of the largest oil fields in Malaysia. Sand production in the Seligi field has been observed, especially from the J reservoirs group. Within the Seligi field, Well G was identified as one of the wells with sand production to surface that could lead to sand accumulation at surface facilities and erosion of equipment. Historically, there had been no in-situ sand control measures in the well. The default practice for sand control was to choke back the well, to prevent triggering of the surface sand probe (production with maximum sand-free rate). This approach however is a compromise, while it limits sand production, it also limits the production potential of the well (well technical potential). As part of the production enhancement assessment program, remedial sand-control methods were considered to increase the oil production while minimising sand production. Among the options considered was ceramic downhole sand screen installation. Ceramics have been used in many extreme erosion and corrosion applications, with ceramic sintered silicon carbide being 50 times harder than steel. Ceramic sand screens made with sintered silicon carbide offer much higher erosional resistance at speeds of 300ft/s sand impingement velocity. Due to the aggressive nature of the sands and high velocities of greater than 50ft/s in Well G, a through-tubing ceramic sand screen was selected. The ceramic sand screen served as a fit for purpose solution that allowed the well potential to be fully maximised, enabling a continuous production with minimal sand production at surface. This paper reviews the first successful pilot installation of through-tubing ceramic sand screen in Well G in the Seligi Oil Field, Offshore Peninsular Malaysia. Discussed are careful analysis and planning, i.e. velocity calculations, tool deployment simulations, tool inspections and detailed job procedure leading to a successful installation. With the ceramic sand screen installed, the well was able to produce at 100% production choke opening with lower tubing head pressure and has not produced sand at surface despite multiple shutdowns and well bean ups. The installation has also removed the need to have sand handling facilities at topside and has generated an implicated cost saving from expensive intervention programs. Given the success of this pilot installation, a baseline in sand control has been set for this field, with new well candidates being considered for future replication.
Patil, Mayank (Halliburton) | Annamalai, Ramesh (Halliburton) | Tan, Brendon (Halliburton) | Kumar, Avinash Kishore (Petronas Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Lau, Chee Hen (Petronas Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Bin Saari, Muhammad Syazwan (Petronas Carigali Sdn. Bhd.)
Abstract Hollow-glass microspheres (beads) are widely used to generate light weight cement slurries for cementing across highly depleted zones and weaker formations; this paper discusses tailoring of a cement slurry and the execution of cementing operations for the successful deployment of an innovative liquid bead solution instead of the conventionally blended beads to achieve zonal isolation for a development well in Malaysia. Usage of dry bulk blended beads poses many challenges, such as rig and vessel silo management, quality control of beads, multiple blends on the rig and excess back-up blends. A new approach has been proposed using a liquid bead system to produce a light weight cement slurry by adding beads stabilized within a suspension fluid as another liquid additive to help eliminate the need of dry bulk blending of beads and at the same time accomplishing all the obligatory cement properties for a production casing section in depleted zones. A successful offshore application of liquid beads was executed in a production casing, meeting all the necessary property requirements for cementing in a depleted zone. The cement slurry was developed in a local field laboratory with standard laboratory testing techniques and equipment. Liquid beads can be added to the cement slurry using liquid additive pumps or batch mixed on the surface. Considering the slurry volume of the production section and the importance of a homogeneous cement slurry, liquid beads were injected into the recirculating line of the cement batch mixer. A yard trial was performed prior to the actual job which validated the easy transfer of liquid beads. Relative to the conventional dry-blended approach, this economically more efficient liquid bead cement system was easy to mix and achieved the required design density without any operational issues. The cementing operation was executed with full returns throughout the job at maximum planned displacement rates. To evaluate cement placement, a post job analysis was performed. The first application of this liquid bead technology in Malaysia was to generate a light-weight cement slurry and was successfully implemented for a 9-5/8" production casing where 167 bbl of the liquid bead base cement slurry was mixed, pumped & effectively placed.