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Two forms of derivatized cellulose have been found useful in well-cementing applications. The usefulness of the two materials depends on their retardational character and thermal stability limits. This is commonly used at temperatures up to approximately 82 C (180 F) for fluid-loss control, and may be used at temperatures up to approximately 110 C (230 F) BHCT, depending on the co-additives used and slurry viscosity limitations. Above 110 C (230 F), HEC is not thermally stable. HEC is typically used at a concentration of 0.4 to 3.0% by weight of cement (BWOC), densities ranging from 16.0 to 11.0 lbm/gal, and temperatures ranging from 27 to 66 C (80 to 150 F) BHCT to achieve a fluid loss of less than 100 cm3 /30 min.
Most primary cement jobs are performed by pumping the slurry down the casing and up the annulus; however, modified techniques can be used for special situations. Conductor, surface, protection, and production strings are usually cemented by the single-stage method, which is performed by pumping cement slurry through the casing shoe and using top and bottom plugs. There are various types of heads for continuous cementing, as well as special adaptors for rotating or reciprocating casing. Stage-cementing tools, or differential valve (DV) tools, are used to cement multiple sections behind the same casing string, or to cement a critical long section in multistages. Stage cementing may reduce mud contamination and lessens the possibility of high filtrate loss or formation breakdown caused by high hydrostatic pressures, which is often a cause for lost circulation.
The drilling conditions described above have led to the following practices, which are reasonably uniform, in the geothermal drilling industry. Because of the hard, fractured formations, roller-cone bits with tungsten-carbide inserts are almost universally used for geothermal drilling. The abrasive rocks mean that bit life is usually low (50 to 100 m), but many bits are also pulled because of bearing failures caused by rough drilling and high temperature. Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have the dual advantages of more efficient rock cutting and no moving parts, but experience with PDC bits in geothermal drilling is both scant and unfavorable. Much research and development in hard-rock PDC bits is under way, so it is possible that these bits will come into wider use in geothermal drilling.
Cement is used to hold casing in place and to prevent fluid migration between subsurface formations. Cementing operations can be divided into two broad categories: primary cementing and remedial cementing. The objective of primary cementing is to provide zonal isolation. Cementing is the process of mixing a slurry of cement, cement additives and water and pumping it down through casing to critical points in the annulus around the casing or in the open hole below the casing string. Zonal isolation is not directly related to production; however, this necessary task must be performed effectively to allow production or stimulation operations to be conducted.
The interpreted pressure transient test is a primary source of dynamic reservoir data. Tests on oil and gas wells are performed at various stages of drilling, completion, and production. Most pressure transient tests can be classified as either single-well productivity tests or descriptive reservoir tests. The pressure-flow convolution involves simultaneous bottomhole flow rate and pressure measurements to correct for the variations of bottomhole pressure caused by flow rate fluctuations during drawdown tests. When software deconvolution operators are used, trial and error is required to convolve a flow-rate schedule with a pressure function that approximates the true constant rate-equivalent pressure function, thus reproducing the measured pressures.
Remedial cementing requires as much technical, engineering, and operational experience, as primary cementing but is often done when wellbore conditions are unknown or out of control, and when wasted rig time and escalating costs force poor decisions and high risk. Squeeze cementing is a "correction" process that is usually only necessary to correct a problem in the wellbore. Before using a squeeze application, a series of decisions must be made to determine (1) if a problem exists, (2) the magnitude of the problem, (3) if squeeze cementing will correct it, (4) the risk factors present, and (5) if economics will support it. Most squeeze applications are unnecessary because they result from poor primary-cement-job evaluations or job diagnostics. Squeeze cementing is a dehydration process.
Figure 1G.2 – Vectorial illustration of the use of three-axis magnetometer and accelerometer data to calculate the inclination and azimuth of the directional-survey tool and of the wellbore itself. Vertical scale on the Well Path Plot is true vertical depth (TVD). Depth markers on the Plan View trace are measured depths. The Tabular Listing links the two depth scales at measurement stations and contains the wellbore deviation, azimuth, and coordinates at the points of measurement. Figure 1G.5 – Principles of the minimum curvature method for modeling the well path between directional survey stations A and B, drawn in the plane of the wellbore.
A number of cementitious materials used for cementing wells do not fall into any specific API or ASTM classification.These materials include: Pozzolanic materials include any natural or industrial siliceous or silico-aluminous material, which will combine with lime in the presence of water at ordinary temperatures to produce strength-developing insoluble compounds similar to those formed from hydration of Portland cement. Typically, pozzolanic material is categorized as natural or artificial, and can be either processed or unprocessed. The most common sources of natural pozzolanic materials are volcanic materials and diatomaceous earth (DE). Artificial pozzolanic materials are produced by partially calcining natural materials such as clays, shales, and certain siliceous rocks, or are more usually obtained as an industrial byproduct. Pozzolanic oilwell cements are typically used to produce lightweight slurries.
The predominant cause of cementing failure appears to be channels of gelled drilling fluid remaining in the annulus after the cement is in place. If drilling-fluid channels are eliminated, any number of cementing compositions will provide an effective seal. Proper hole preparation is the key to success. In evaluating factors that affect the displacement of drilling fluid, it is necessary to consider the flow pattern in an eccentric annulus (i.e., where the pipe is closer to one side of the hole than the other). Flow velocity in an eccentric annulus is not uniform, and the highest velocity occurs in the side of the hole with the largest clearance.
Elyas, Mohamed (Weatherford) | Freile, Daniel Agustin (Weatherford) | Pawlowski, Maciej (Weatherford) | Tagarieva, Larisa (Weatherford) | Elaila, Shamseldin Zakrya (Kuwait Oil Company) | Sergeev, Evgeny (Kuwait Oil Company)
Abstract While drilling an 8 /2-incli section of a north Kuwait producer well, severe mud losses were encountered. Hence, it was decided to design a light weight cement for the 7-inch liner section to avoid further losses while pumping the slurry. The main objective was to achieve a hydraulic isolation to avoid any heavy remedial intervention and potential dump flood behind the liner from the high-pressure Lower Burgan (LB) to Shuaiba. Full suite of well integrity logs were ran to properly assess whether enough hydraulic isolation was in place. To evaluate the bonding quality of the cement, two independent measurements were carried out across the 7-inch liner with the ultrasonic and sonic bond logs. A subsequent temperature survey was recorded to determine any geothermal anomaly, which could be indicative of fluid movement behind the casing. Finally, oxygen activation stations were conducted based on the cement log and temperature surveys to assure no water movement behind the casing. The ultrasonic and sonic bond log measurements showed an acceptable bond quality generally. However, the top part of Shuaiba formation up to LB exhibited relatively lower bond quality. The subsequent temperature and oxygen activation logs indicated that the zonal hydraulic isolation was achieved by showing no water movement behind the 7-inch liner. The two complementary surveys helped to take the proper forward decision for this well to go ahead with the planned perforation without cement remedial squeeze, since enough hydraulic isolation was proved to be in place behind the 7-inch liner. Additionally, this saved the rig utilization time and cost by avoiding unnecessary remedial operation. This is usually a heavy-duty operation, which takes time and induces holes in the casing that should be avoided, knowing this type of operation only provides a very marginal gain in terms of isolation. Furthermore, the well is currently producing at 0% water cut after completion. The proper cement design using light weight cement and optimized casing-landing plan were crucial to achieve good cement placement against formation. The use of the right well integrity approach helped to confirm that effective hydraulic isolation was achieved. Hence all these efforts resulted in the saved rig utilization time and cost by avoiding unnecessary squeeze intervention.