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Coiled tubing (CT) is an electric-welded tube manufactured with one longitudinal seam formed by high-frequency induction welding without the addition of filler metal. Coiled tubing can be used in well intervention, and more recently, in drilling operations. The first step in the typical CT manufacturing process involves the acquisition of steel stock supplied in 40- to 48-in.-wide As a result, the lengths of sheet steel will vary depending upon the wall thickness. When the diameter of the CT is selected, the sheet steel on the master coil is "slit" into a continuous strip of a specific width to form the circumference of the specified tube.
An important consideration related to intermittent gas lift operations is the injection-gas breakthrough and resulting loss of the liquid production per cycle from the injection gas penetrating the liquid slug during the time required to displace this slug to the surface. The produced-liquid slug can be a small fraction of the starting slug size because of injection-gas breakthrough. The losses are greater when the injection-gas pressure is low and the required depth of lift is near total depth in a deep well. For example, a 12,000-ft well with a bottomhole flowing pressure of 300 psig and an available injection-gas pressure of only 450 psig can be gas lifted intermittently with the proper plunger. The well could not be gas lifted successfully from this depth without a plunger.
Tellurian has finalized 10-year liquefied natural gas (LNG) sale and purchase agreements (SPAs) with Shell for 3 mtpa from the Driftwood LNG project in Louisiana. The SPAs are on a free on board (FOB) basis and indexed to a combination of two indices: the Japan Korea Marker and the Dutch Title Transfer Facility, each netted back for transportation charges. The agreements mark the third deal that Tellurian has finalized in 10 weeks, totaling 9 mtpa and nearly all the capacity of Driftwood LNG's first two plants. In June, Tellurian signed a similar deal with energy trader Vitol. A month prior, another 10-year, 3-mtpa deal was struck with Guvnor Singapore.
US liquefied natural gas (LNG) developer Tellurian terminated a stock-and-LNG-purchase agreement with France's TotalEnergies related to Tellurian's proposed Driftwood LNG export plant in Louisiana. Tellurian said in its 8-K filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission that it had ended the agreements "because they are not consistent with the commercial agreements that Driftwood LNG ... has reached with other counterparties." The other counterparties include commodity traders Vitol and Gunvor Group, with whom Tellurian signed 10-year agreements in May and June to sell 3 mtpa of LNG. Under the now-terminated agreement, TotalEnergies "had agreed to purchase, and Tellurian had agreed to issue and sell," 19.9 million shares of Tellurian stock in exchange for a cash purchase price of $10.064 per share, with an option to buy as many as 1.5 million mtpa of LNG, subject to the satisfaction of certain closing conditions. One of those closing conditions, according to Reuters, was Tellurian's making a final investment decision to build the liquefaction plant within 24 months of a 10 July 2019 agreement.
Two of the world's wealthiest men have put their vast resources behind what the nuclear industry calls small modular reactors (SMRs) in the quest for the perfect carbon-free energy source. TerraPower, founded by Bill Gates, and PacifiCorp, owned by Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway, are sponsors of the project. The first SMR from TerraPower, the Natrium reactor project, will be built in Wyoming--the nation's primary coal producer--at the very location that once housed a coal station, where the infrastructure for a steam-cycle power plant and distribution to the electrical grid already exist. Last year, the state legislature passed a law authorizing utilities to replace coal or natural gas generation with small nuclear reactors and the US Department of Energy awarded TerraPower $80 million in initial funding to demonstrate Natrium technology; the department has committed additional funding subject to congressional approvals. Just ask anyone in Texas where a combination of frozen wind turbines and unprecedented demand last winter darkened the state for days.
The International Gas Union's (IGU) recent report on world LNG markets found that the trade increased by only 1.4 mt to 356.1 mt compared to 2019 supported by increased exports from the US and Australia, together adding 13.4 mt of exports. Asia Pacific and Asia again imported the most volumes in 2020, together accounting for more than 70% of global LNG imports. Asia also accounted for the largest growth in imports in 2020--adding 9.5 mt of net LNG imports vs. 2019. While 20 mtpa in liquefaction capacity was brought on stream in 2020, all in the US, startup of several liquefaction trains in Russia, Indonesia, the US, and Malaysia were delayed as a result of the pandemic, according to the report. The only project that was sanctioned in 2020 was the 3.25-mtpa Energia Costa Azul facility in Mexico, and in early 2021 Qatar took final investment decision (FID) on four expansion trains totaling 32 mtpa.
To evaluate a given casing design, a set of loads is necessary. Casing loads result from running the casing, cementing the casing, subsequent drilling operations, production and well workover operations. Temperature changes and resulting thermal expansion loads are induced in casing by drilling, production, and workovers, and these loads might cause buckling (bending stress) loads in uncemented intervals. In shallow normal-pressured wells, temperature will typically have a secondary effect on tubular design. In other situations, loads induced by temperature can be the governing criteria in the design.
And, it grew in record numbers, according to the Houston Chronicle. Renewable energy installations not only increased during the pandemic, they exceeded even the most bullish of expectations, with wind installations increasing 90% and solar increasing 23%, according to EIA data. IEA Releases "First Comprehensive" Energy Roadmap to Net Zero by 2050 The International Energy Agency has released Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector, which it is calling the world's first comprehensive study to lay out a cost-effective transition to a net-zero energy system while ensuring stable and affordable energy supplies, providing universal energy access, and enabling economic growth. The roadmap sets out more than 400 milestones to guide the world's governments in acting on IEA's insights, building their own national roadmaps, and implementing policies needed to achieve their net-zero goals. Spain Bans New Oil and Gas Exploration and Production A wide-ranging climate bill passed by the Spanish parliament bans all fossil-fuel production in the country beginning in 2043 and prohibits the sale of gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles by 2040.
Nacero has tapped Bechtel to conduct front-end engineering and design (FEED) work for its planned natural-gas-to-gasoline manufacturing facility destined for Penwell, Texas, near Odessa. The 115,000 B/D facility will be the first of its kind in the US and will be the first gasoline manufacturing plant in the world to incorporate carbon capture, carbon sequestration, and 100% renewable power, according to Nacero. The use of renewable natural gas and mitigated flare gas will make it possible to reduce the life cycle footprint of Nacero's zero-sulfur gasoline to zero over time. Nacero's products will be sold to retailers in Texas and the Southwest, and through Nacero-branded outlets. "This project is truly a game-changer," said Paul Marsden, president of Bechtel Energy.
Polycrystalline diamond materials, for use in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits, are one of the most important material advances for oil drilling tools in recent years. Fixed-head bits rotate as one piece and contain no separately moving parts. When fixed-head bits use PDC cutters, they are commonly called PDC bits. Since their first production in 1976, the popularity of bits using PDC cutters has grown steadily, and they are nearly as common as roller-cone bits in many drilling applications. The two provide significantly different capabilities, and, because both types have certain advantages, a choice between them would be decided by the needs of the application.