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The most important mechanical properties of casing and tubing are burst strength, collapse resistance and tensile strength. These properties are necessary to determine the strength of the pipe and to design a casing string. If casing is subjected to internal pressure higher than external, it is said that casing is exposed to burst pressure loading. Burst pressure loading conditions occur during well control operations, casing pressure integrity tests, pumping operations, and production operations. The MIYP of the pipe body is determined by the internal yield pressure formula found in API Bull. This equation, commonly known as the Barlow equation, calculates the internal pressure at which the tangential (or hoop) stress at the inner wall of the pipe reaches the yield strength (YS) of the material.
Layered flow often occurs in high-angle wells (i.e., a water layer in the lower part of the wellbore cross-section, an oil layer above the water, and a gas layer at the upper part of the cross-section). While the tools used in vertical wells have proven effective in high-angle wells on most occasions, special tools have been developed for studying two- and three-phase flow. These tools make use of arms to position electrodes across the casing diameter. Consequently, they are "blind" to flow outside a screen or perforated liner. The brief descriptions of these tools that follow are based on the limited published information and personal discussions with suppliers.
Casing and tubing strings are the main parts of the well construction. All wells drilled for the purpose of oil or gas production (or injecting materials into underground formations) must be cased with material with sufficient strength and functionality. Casing is the major structural component of a well. The cost of casing is a major part of the overall well cost, so selection of casing size, grade, connectors, and setting depth is a primary engineering and economic consideration. Conductor casing is the first string set below the structural casing (i.e., drive pipe or marine conductor run to protect loose near-surface formations and to enable circulation of drilling fluid).
Considerations in separator sizes is important during design. The liquid capacity of most separators is sized to provide enough retention time to allow gas bubbles to form and separate out. Separators are typically sized by the droplet settling theory or retention time for the liquid phase. In gravity settling, the dispersed drops/bubbles will settle at a velocity determined by equating the gravity force on the drop/bubble with the drag force caused by its motion relative to the continuous phase. In horizontal vessels, a simple ballistic model can be used to determine a relationship between vessel length and diameter.
The three primary functions of a drilling fluid depend on the flow of drilling fluids and the pressures associated with that flow. These functions includes: The transport of cuttings out of the wellbore, prevention of fluid influx, and the maintenance of wellbore stability. If the wellbore pressure exceeds the fracture pressure, fluids will be lost to the formation. If the wellbore pressure falls below the pore pressure, fluids will flow into the wellbore, perhaps causing a blowout. It is clear that accurate wellbore pressure prediction is necessary. To properly engineer a drilling fluid system, it is necessary to be able to predict pressures and flows of fluids in the wellbore.
Introduction The three primary functions of a drilling fluid--the transport of cuttings out of the wellbore, prevention of fluid influx, and the maintenance of wellbore stability--depend on the flow of drilling fluids and the pressures associated with that flow. For example, if the wellbore pressure exceeds the fracture pressure, fluids will be lost to the formation. If the wellbore pressure falls below the pore pressure, fluids will flow into the wellbore, perhaps causing a blowout. It is clear that accurate wellbore pressure prediction is necessary. To properly engineer a drilling fluid system, it is necessary to be able to predict pressures and flows of fluids in the wellbore. The purpose of this chapter is to describe in detail the calculations necessary to predict the flow performance of various drilling fluids for the variety of operations used in drilling and completing a well. Overview Drilling fluids range from relatively incompressible fluids, such as water and brines, to ...
To evaluate a given casing design, a set of loads is necessary. Casing loads result from running the casing, cementing the casing, subsequent drilling operations, production and well workover operations. Mechanical loads are associated with casing hanging weight, shock loads during running, packer loads during production and workovers, and hanger loads. In tubing and over the free length of the casing above top-of-cement (TOC), changes in temperatures and pressures will have the largest effect on the ballooning and temperature load components. The incremental forces, because of these effects, are given here.
Abstract Torque and drag models have been used for many decades to calculate tensions and torques along drill-strings, casing strings and liner strings. However, when applied to sand-screens, it is important to check that all the initial hypotheses used for torque and drag calculations are still valid. In particular, it should be checked whether the buoyancy force on a perforated tube may differ from the one applied to a plain tube. The buoyancy force applied on a pipe, contributes to the sum of efforts at the contact between the pipe and the borehole and therefore influences torque and drag calculations. This contact force is local and should account for localized effects as well as the material internal forces, torques and moments on each side of the contact. As the buoyancy force is the result of the gravitational component of the pressure gradient on the surface of the pipe that is in contact with the fluid, the presence of holes in the pipe also influences the buoyancy force. When applied to a portion of a pipe, buoyancy does not have contributions at the end caps of that portion of the drill-stem since these end caps are not in contact with the fluid, except at positions with a change of diameter. Therefore, one shall be cautious when calculating the local buoyancy force either on a plain or a perforated tube. The paper describes how to calculate the local buoyancy force on a portion of a drill-stem by application of the Gauss theorem accounting for the necessary corrections arising from the end caps not being exposed to the fluid. An experimental setup has been built to verify that the tension inside a pipe subject to buoyancy does follow the derived mathematical calculations. With complex well construction operations, for instance during extended reach drilling or when drilling very shallow wells with high kick-off rates, the slightest error in torques and drag calculations may end up in jeopardizing the chance of success of the drilling operation. It is therefore important to check that all initial calculation hypotheses are still valid in those contexts and that for instance, sand-screens may be run in hole safely after a successful drilling operation.
In a dynamic calculation, there are two effects not considered in steady flow: fluid inertia and fluid accumulation. In steady-state mass conservation, flow of fluid into a volume was matched by an equivalent flow out of the volume. In the dynamic calculation, there may not be equal inflow and outflow, but fluid may accumulate within the volume. For fluid accumulation to occur, either the fluid must compress, or the wellbore must expand. When considering the momentum equation, the fluid at rest must be accelerated to its final flow rate.
Several designs for autonomous inflow-control devices (AICDs) are available. One forces inflowing fluids to enter gates, depending on inertial and viscous forces of the various fluids. Another is an autonomous valve in the shape of a free-floating disk that restricts the flow rate of low-viscosity fluids and is primarily used to choke gas and water inflow. Recently, a device with water-swellable rubber inside the nozzle has been proposed, but it is not yet commercially available. The comparative properties and abilities of these designs are the focus of this paper.