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The most important mechanical properties of casing and tubing are burst strength, collapse resistance and tensile strength. These properties are necessary to determine the strength of the pipe and to design a casing string. If casing is subjected to internal pressure higher than external, it is said that casing is exposed to burst pressure loading. Burst pressure loading conditions occur during well control operations, casing pressure integrity tests, pumping operations, and production operations. The MIYP of the pipe body is determined by the internal yield pressure formula found in API Bull. This equation, commonly known as the Barlow equation, calculates the internal pressure at which the tangential (or hoop) stress at the inner wall of the pipe reaches the yield strength (YS) of the material.
Productivity estimates in horizontal wells are subject to more uncertainty than comparable estimates in vertical wells. Further, it is much more difficult to interpret well test data because of 3D flow geometry. The radial symmetry usually present in a vertical well does not exist. Several flow regimes can potentially occur and need to be considered in analyzing test data from horizontal wells. Wellbore storage effects can be much more significant and partial penetration and end effects commonly complicate interpretation. In vertical wells, variables such as average permeability, net vertical thickness, and skin are used. Horizontal wells need more detail. Not only is vertical thickness important, but the horizontal dimensions of the reservoir, relative to the horizontal wellbore, need to be known. Evaluation of data from a vertical wellbore will generally center on a single flow regime, such as infinite-acting radial flow, known as the MTR. However, a pressure-transient test in a horizontal well can involve as many as five major and distinct regimes that need to be identified. These regimes may or may not occur in a given test and may or may not be obscured by wellbore storage effects. Each flow regime can be modeled by an equation that can be used to estimate important reservoir properties.
Characterizing geothermal reservoirs draws on techniques common to petroleum reservoirs. Key differences create special challenges to gaining a good understanding of geothermal reservoirs. This article covers appropriate approaches and caveats for well testing, drawdown/buildup analyses and decline curve analysis for characterizing geothermal reservoirs. Geothermal well testing is similar in many respects to transient pressure testing of oil/gas wells, with some significant differences. Many geothermal wells induce boiling in the near-well reservoir, giving rise to temperature transients as well as pressure transients. Substantial phase change may also take place in the well, further complicating analysis. Pressure tools must be kept in a high-temperature environment for long periods of time, and production intervals are frequently very small portions of overall well depth.
This page discusses various aspects of gas reservoir performance, primarily to determine initial gas in place and how much is recoverable. The equations developed can used to form the basis of forecasting future production rates by capturing the relationship between cumulative fluid production and average reservoir pressure. Material-balance equations provide a relationship between original fluids in place, cumulative fluid production, and average reservoir pressure. This equation is the basis for the p/z-vs.-Gp Reservoir engineers have often used pressure contour maps or some approximate methods to determine field average reservoir pressure for p/z analysis. Usually, however, individual well pressures are based on extrapolation of pressure buildup tests or from long shut-in periods. In either case, the average pressure measured does not represent a point value, but rather is the average value within the well's effective drainage volume (see Estimating drainage shapes).
PVT considerations are important in setting up the proper parameters when undergoing reservoir simulation. Phase behavior of a mixture with known composition consists of defining the number of phases, phase amounts, phase compositions, phase properties (molecular weight, density, and viscosity), and the interfacial tension (IFT) between phases. In addition to defining the phase behavior of mixtures at a specific reservoir pressure, knowing the derivatives of all phase properties with respect to pressure and composition is important in reservoir simulation. With either approach, the PVT quantities required by a reservoir simulator are essentially the same. Modern reservoir simulators are usually written with a general compositional formulation, whereas black-oil PVT properties are converted internally to a two-component "compositional" model; the two components are surface gas and surface oil. A reservoir simulator keeps track of overall composition in each computational grid cell as a function of time. The phase fluxes and component movement within the reservoir are greatly affected by phase behavior (e.g., the mobility of each phase and which components are carried in each phase).
The aim of gridding in reservoir simulation is to turn the geological model of the field into a discrete system on which the fluid flow equations can be solved. The basic structure of an oil reservoir is a set of geological horizons representing bedding planes. The reservoir may contain faults, at which the strata are displaced. It is usually possible to identify many more layers in the geological model than it is practical to include in reservoir flow simulation, so some upscaling of rock properties will normally be carried out. Even after this process, the geology to be represented is rarely homogeneous at the scale of the simulation grid.
Phase behavior describes the complex interaction between physically distinct, separable portions of matter called phases that are in contact with each other. Typical phases are solids, liquids and vapors. Thermodynamics, which is central to understanding phase behavior, is the study of energy and its transformations. Using thermodynamics, we can follow the energy changes that occur during phase changes and predict the outcome of a process. Thermodynamics began as the study of heat applied to steam power but was substantially broadened by Gibbs in the middle to late 1800s.
Well-to-well tracer tests contribute significantly to the reservoir description, which is essential in determining the best choice of production strategy. Direct dynamic information from a reservoir may be obtained, in principle, from three sources: production history, pressure testing, and tracer testing. The value and importance of tracer tests are broadly recognized. Tracer testing has become a mature technology, and improved knowledge about tracer behavior in the reservoir, improved tracer analysis, and reduction of pitfalls have made tracer tests reliable. Many tracer compounds exist; however, the number of suitable compounds for well-to-well tracers is reduced considerably because of the harsh environment that exists in many reservoirs and the long testing period. Radioactive tracers with a half-life of less than one year are mentioned only briefly in this chapter because of their limited applicability in long-term tests. Tracers may be roughly classified as passive or active. In principle, a passive tracer blindly follows the fluid phase in which it is injected. Interpretation of tracer-production curves must account for this. The results from the application of active tracers may give information about fluid saturation and rock surface properties. This information is especially important when enhanced-oil-recovery techniques that use expensive fluids such as surfactants, micellar fluids, or polymers are considered. In the last 50 years, many tracer studies have been reported and even more have been carried out without being published in the open literature. Wagner pointed out six areas in which tracers could be used as a tool to improve the reservoir description. Many companies apply tracer on a routine basis. The reservoir engineer's problem generally is a lack of adequate information about fluid flow in the reservoir. The information obtained from tracer tests is unique, and tracer tests are a relatively cheap method to obtain this information. The information is an addendum to the general field production history and is used to reduce uncertainties in the reservoir model. Tracer tests provide tracer-response curves that may be evaluated further to obtain relevant additional information. Primarily, the information gained from tracer testing is obtained simply by observing breakthrough and interwell communication.
To obtain high-quality tracer-response curves that are the basis for the further interpretation, a well-designed sampling program is needed. In general, more samples will give the potential for extraction of more information from field tests. Too often, interpretation is difficult because of limited tracer data. The final objective of a well-to-well study is the interpretation of the response curves. A good analysis of the information given by the tracers, in combination with other available data, gives a better understanding of the flow in the reservoir, not just verification of communication between injector and producer.
This is an example of calculating PVT properties. The specific correlations that should be used for a specific crude oil or reservoir may vary, as discussed in the referenced pages focusing on specific properties. Determine the PVT properties for a United States midcontinental crude oil and natural gas system with properties listed in Table 1. Table 2 lists the correlations to be used. Measured data are provided for comparison with the calculated results.