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The required power for the oil field is either generated on site by engine- or turbine-driven generator sets or purchased from a local utility company. The engines or turbines may use diesel or natural gas as a fuel. Some units are dual-fueled, using natural gas and diesel. Natural-gas-fueled prime movers are most practical for normal power generation for most applications. Diesel is used where natural gas is unavailable and for units that provide black-start and emergency power.
One of the options for gas monetization is gas to power (GTP), sometimes called gas to wire (GTW). Electric power can be an intermediate product, such as in the case of mineral refining in which electricity is used to refine bauxite into aluminum; or it can be an end product that is distributed into a large utility power grid. This page focuses on electricity as the end product. The primary issues related to GTP are the relative positions of the resource and the end market and transmission methods. The scale or volume of gas and/or power to be transported influences each of these issues.
Two of the world's wealthiest men have put their vast resources behind what the nuclear industry calls small modular reactors (SMRs) in the quest for the perfect carbon-free energy source. TerraPower, founded by Bill Gates, and PacifiCorp, owned by Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway, are sponsors of the project. The first SMR from TerraPower, the Natrium reactor project, will be built in Wyoming--the nation's primary coal producer--at the very location that once housed a coal station, where the infrastructure for a steam-cycle power plant and distribution to the electrical grid already exist. Last year, the state legislature passed a law authorizing utilities to replace coal or natural gas generation with small nuclear reactors and the US Department of Energy awarded TerraPower $80 million in initial funding to demonstrate Natrium technology; the department has committed additional funding subject to congressional approvals. Just ask anyone in Texas where a combination of frozen wind turbines and unprecedented demand last winter darkened the state for days.
Carreño, Ignacio Losada (Arizona State University) | Scaglione, Anna (Arizona State University) | Giacomoni, Anthony (PJM Interconnection) | Sundar, Kaarthik (Los Alamos National Laboratory) | Deka, Deepjyoti (Los Alamos National Laboratory) | Zlotnik, Anatoly (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
Abstract We propose a modeling framework and computational method to examine the impacts of operational contingencies on a pipeline system’s capacity to transport natural gas, and study the resulting effect on the reliability of an electric power transmission system that relies on that pipeline for generation fuel. A stochastic model is used to simulate the prevalence of unplanned events that lead to outages that decrease transport capacity, and that may cause curtailments to gas-fired generators that do not hold firm pipeline transportation contracts. We use a transient optimal gas flow as an integrated model that serves as a proxy for pipeline financial and physical operations that involve human-in-loop decisions including compressor setpoint changes. The resulting effects on energy delivery by both the electric power and natural gas sectors is evaluated using transient pipeline simulation and power flow analysis. We consider contingencies occurring during normal operations and collect statistics related to pipeline performance. The proposed approach can be used to discover system vulnerabilities and could ultimately guide development of reliability standards. Introduction Many electric power systems throughout the world now heavily rely on natural gas pipeline networks to supply fuel for gas-fired generation . This has led to growing demand for natural gas transportation in large-scale pipelines, but also increased variability and intermittence in high volume gas flows to dispatched gas-fired generators, which result from operational decision making for the power grid. Although the wholesale power and gas delivery sectors have taken actions to improve market efficiency and implement formal coordination mechanisms , , it is becoming increasingly problematic for power generation asset managers to procure natural gas during periods of pipeline congestion for both base load and ancillary services , which may lead to load curtailments  such as during the recent cold weather event in Texas.
Abstract The integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into the electric power system and the demand for efficient, clean and reliable production, transport and distribution of energy is connected with an increased coupling between the individual energy systems. The interdependency between natural gas and electric power systems, for instance, is increasing and expected to increase further in the near future, mainly due to the growing demand for flexible backup generation and the need for short- and long-term energy storage options to balance the fluctuations of variable and intermittent RES. The need for flexible backup power can be covered by Gas Fired Power Plants, while the demand for seasonal storage can be met by Power-To-Gas facilities. In this paper, we show how curtailment of RES can be reduced by operating Power-To-Gas facilities. Introduction To meet future decarbonization targets power system planners and operators have to integrate more variable renewable energy sources into their electric power systems. The stable and reliable operation of the power system, however, requires a balance between power generation and demand, since electric energy cannot be efficiently and economically stored in existing power system networks. Due to the uncertainty and variability in the generation from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and at the same time the lack of energy storage, power system planners and operators must find new flexibility and storage options, which typically lie at the interface between different energy networks, such as natural gas, heat & power networks. Natural gas networks, for instance, have relatively large energy storage capacities (linepack, underground gas storage, LNG storage tanks), which can be leveraged by electricity networks to tackle the flexibility and energy storage challenges. The connection between the gas and electric power system can exist at Gas-To-Power plants (G2P) as Gas fired Power Plants (GPP), electric driven gas compressor stations (Power-To-Pressure - P2P) as well as Power-To-Gas facilities (P2G). G2P facilities have relatively short start-up and shut-down times, making them well suited as back-up generation sources in case of lack of wind and solar generation. P2G facilities, on the other hand, can be used to convert excess power generation from renewable sources into hydrogen (H2) and/or synthetic natural gas (SNG), which in turn can be injected into the natural gas pipeline network and/or underground gas storage reservoirs.
The scenery is filled with tall pole-like structures with active fire at the top, also known as flare stacks, which are burning like enormous birthday cake candles--a vivid description of any oil field in the Bakken region that covers most of North Dakota and Montana's rich oil and gas deposits. The only difference is that the environment is not that happy because those "candles" never stop burning and one can smell the burned off natural gas combined with a deafening noise, resembling the space rocket thrusters. This is a picture of routine flaring, a process of burning off natural gas at the well head, which has been a standard practice in the oil and gas industry for decades. Associated petroleum gas is produced at any reservoir with oil deposits. This gas is usually a mixture of methane, butane, propane, etc.
Of the 2,558 MW of geothermal power plant capacity currently operating in the US, 1,826 MW of capacity is from steam-powered plants and 731 MW of capacity is from binary-cycle powered plants. But the balance is shifting, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). Utility-scale geothermal power plants in the US use either steam power or a binary cycle to generate electricity. A little more than 70% of the country's current geothermal capacity was built before the year 2000, using mostly steam-powered technology. However, of the 735 MW of capacity built since the turn of the century, nearly 90% is binary-cycle capacity.
Digital transformations are slated to transform the industry by reducing expenditures, improving operations, and providing a granular view of workflows enabling more effective decision-making. In the heart of all these digitization efforts in our industry lies machine learning. Machine learning enables us to build complex models on the data collected, leading to better decisions. In the simplest terms, it is a form of artificial intelligence (AI) which is designed to learn on its own or become better as it is fed more data. These algorithms have the potential to revolutionize our workflow in the future when the applicability of AI increases.
Exhaust plumes from generators, pumps, and compressors aboard offshore platforms pose a hazard to crew and equipment. Mitigation for exhaust-plume impingement has traditionally been achieved by locating the exhaust uptake away from sensitive areas of the platform by use of long horizontal duct runs, by use of a very tall exhaust stack ( 20 m), or by some combination of the two. These solutions result in an exhaust system that is complicated to design and that adds significant weight to the platform. A more practical and weight-efficient alternative exists in the form of plume cooling. Plume-cooling technology has been in use for more than 40 years on military ships for the purpose of infrared-signature suppression and for the protection of sensitive weapons and communications systems that would otherwise be damaged by hot impinging exhaust gases.
The rising levels of routine flaring in the US have caught the eye of many, especially innovators who see a big opportunity to marry environmental action with good business sense. All these technology developers are united around the idea that routine flaring equates to burning billions of dollars a year. But most shale producers, faced with low prices and chronic takeaway constraints, have had little incentive to invest in capturing associated gas. However, the broad reach of North American shale developments has made the flaring of associated gas one of the sector's most visible public relations problems, drawing ire from environmentalists and increased scrutiny from the media, regulators, and investors. There are now concerns that the "clean" reputation of natural gas may be lost if too much of it is burned up at the wellsite or, worse, vented straight into the atmosphere.