|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
The United States remained Europe's top supplier of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the first 3 months of 2021 as it continued to gain market share at the expense of Russia and Qatar, Europe's second- and third-largest sources of LNG, according to the EU Commission's latest European Gas Market Report. The US supplied 24% (4.2 Bcm) of the EU's overall LNG imports (17 Bcm in Q1 2021); Russia placed second at 21% (3.7 Bcm); and Qatar was third at 18% (3.1 Bcm), the EU Commission reported in early July. When compared to Q4 2020, the US picked up 2% market share from January to March this year, while Russia bested Qatar to become Europe's second-largest LNG supplier. Nigeria placed fourth, followed by Algeria and Trinidad and Tobago. A review of EU Commission reports dating back to 2019 reveals a steady quarter-to-quarter decline in Europe's LNG purchases while it also documents the growing rivalry between the US and Russia, Qatar's fall from dominance, and the emergence of the US as Europe's top LNG supplier starting Q4 2019.
The Biden administration is poised to issue new cybersecurity regulations for pipelines and liquefied natural gas facilities in the aftermath of the April hack that temporarily paralyzed the nation's biggest liquid fuel conduit. The rules, which could be released as early as this week by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), are the second tranche by the agency since the attack on Colonial Pipeline. It represents a further move away from a system that until now had relied on self-reporting and other voluntary measures. "This Security Directive will apply to those pipeline systems that TSA has designated as critical to our nation's infrastructure and is urgently needed so as to better protect our critical pipeline infrastructure from cybersecurity threats," the Department of Homeland Security, which oversees the TSA, said in a statement that added that the directive would apply to liquefied natural gas facilities as well as pipelines. TSA officials were scheduled to brief the industry on the rules on 19 July, according to one person familiar with the matter who asked not to be identified discussing nonpublic information. Under the rules put in place in May, pipeline operators who fail to report cybersecurity attacks could be subject to fines and would also require pipeline companies to designate a representative to be available around the clock as a point of contact.
BP has entered a contract with Sempra Energy and Mexico's Infraestructura Energetica Nova for delivery of the company's first carbon-offset liquefied natural gas cargo. The cargo was delivered on 16 July to the Energia Costa Azul terminal, a joint venture between Sempra and IEnova, in Mexico's Baja California. The cargo will be sourced from BP's global LNG portfolio, and its estimated emissions will be offset using carbon credits sourced from a BP forest creation project in Mexico. "We are excited to advance our goal to lower GHG [greenhouse-gas] emission intensity at our LNG facilities," said Justin Bird, chief executive of Sempra LNG. "Sempra LNG continues to build a strong business portfolio focused on sustainability and the global energy transition."
Oil or gas wells produce a mixture of hydrocarbon gas, condensate, or oil; water with dissolved minerals, usually including a large amount of salt; other gases, including nitrogen, carbon dioxide (CO2), and possibly hydrogen sulfide (H2S); and solids, including sand from the reservoir, dirt, scale, and corrosion products from the tubing. For the hydrocarbons (gas or liquid) to be sold, they must be separated from the water and solids, measured, sold, and transported by pipeline, truck, rail, or ocean tanker to the user. Gas is usually restricted to pipeline transportation but can also be shipped in pressure vessels on ships, trucks, or railroad cars as compressed natural gas or converted to a liquid and sent as a liquefied natural gas (LNG). This chapter discusses the field processing required before oil and gas can be sold. The goal is to produce oil that meets the purchaser's specifications that define the maximum allowable water, salt, or other impurities. Similarly, the gas must be processed to meet purchaser's water vapor and hydrocarbon dewpoint specifications to limit condensation during transportation. The produced water must meet regulatory requirements for disposal in the ocean if the wells are offshore, reservoir requirements for injection into an underground reservoir to avoid plugging the reservoir, and technical requirements for other uses, such as feed to steam boilers in thermal-flood operations, or in special cases, for irrigation. The equipment between the wells and the pipeline, or other transportation system, is called an oilfield facility. An oilfield facility is different from a refinery or chemical plant in a number of ways.
US liquefied natural gas (LNG) developer Tellurian terminated a stock-and-LNG-purchase agreement with France's TotalEnergies related to Tellurian's proposed Driftwood LNG export plant in Louisiana. Tellurian said in its 8-K filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission that it had ended the agreements "because they are not consistent with the commercial agreements that Driftwood LNG ... has reached with other counterparties." The other counterparties include commodity traders Vitol and Gunvor Group, with whom Tellurian signed 10-year agreements in May and June to sell 3 mtpa of LNG. Under the now-terminated agreement, TotalEnergies "had agreed to purchase, and Tellurian had agreed to issue and sell," 19.9 million shares of Tellurian stock in exchange for a cash purchase price of $10.064 per share, with an option to buy as many as 1.5 million mtpa of LNG, subject to the satisfaction of certain closing conditions. One of those closing conditions, according to Reuters, was Tellurian's making a final investment decision to build the liquefaction plant within 24 months of a 10 July 2019 agreement.
Shell, through Shell Eastern Trading, has signed a 5-year contract to supply PetroChina with carbon-neutral liquefied natural gas (LNG) cargos, using carbon credits to offset emissions across the LNG value chain. Shell will use offsets from its own portfolio of nature-based emission-reduction projects, the company said in announcing on 13 July that it had made its first delivery to PetroChina at the port of Dalian. Shell's first carbon-neutral LNG delivery to the Chinese mainland occurred a year ago under a contract signed on 22 June 2020 to deliver two cargos to CNOOC Gas & Power Group Co. Ltd. (CNOOC), a wholly owned subsidiary of China National Offshore Oil Corporation, according to Shell's website. Shell noted that CNOOC planned to auction both of its carbon-neutral LNG cargoes through the Shanghai Petroleum and Gas Exchange. Other credits may come from Shell-supported reforestation projects developed with the Qinghai Forestry Bureau in Qinghai and Xinjiang provinces in China.
Introduction: Gas – The Fuel of the 21st Century Natural gas is the fastest growing primary energy source. Its use is projected to double between 1999 and 2020. The mix of fossil fuels used to provide energy and petrochemicals is shifting toward natural gas (or just "gas") and away from coal. Natural gas is the more hydrogen-rich fuel. The worldwide increase in demand for natural gas is driven by the abundance of natural gas reserves, continued technological advances in exploration and production, and the desire for low-carbon fuels and cleaner air. The global demand for gas is increasing at more than twice the rate of oil demand. In the near future, one can envision an economy powered by gas. There are approximately 150 trillion m3 of proven natural gas reserves available worldwide as of the year 2000. At current consumption rates, the worldwide reserves-to-production ratio for gas is approximately 65 years, compared with 38 years for crude oil. Many factors support the growth of the use of gas. Natural gas is a clean-burning fuel. It has a higher ratio of hydrogen to carbon compared with fuels like coal and oil; therefore, it releases less carbon dioxide per unit energy output compared with oil and coal. If sulfur is present in natural gas, it is removed at the source gas-processing facility. Additionally, natural gas can be burned with more controlled flame temperature compared with other fossil fuels, resulting in lower NOx emissions. These inherent properties of natural gas make it the fuel of choice compared with coal and oil for achieving reductions in greenhouse emissions. On the down side, the disadvantage of natural gas is that it is more expensive to transport. The calorific value of oil in relation to the volume it occupies, at ambient conditions, is 1,000 times greater than that of gas. Fundamentally, it is this handicap that the oil and gas industry has to address for gas to fulfill its potential as the fuel of the near future. This limitation on gas usage is evident from the fact that only 23% of the world gas production is traded internationally vs. 57% for oil. Gas exploration has generally been limited by the cost to transport the gas to the market; hence, the current reserves of natural gas significantly underestimate the available gas resources. Continued technology development is lowering the cost of production, which, when combined with advances in technology for transporting gas and gas-based products to the market, has increased the focus on gas exploration.
Chevron has confirmed that it and the Gorgon joint venture participants will proceed with the $4-billion Jansz-Io Compression (J-IC) project offshore Western Australia. Nigel Hearne, Chevron Eurasia Pacific exploration and production president, said J-IC represents Chevron's most significant capital investment in Australia since the sanctioning of the Gorgon Stage 2 project in 2018. "Using world-leading subsea compression technology, J-IC is positioned to maintain gas supply from the Jansz-Io field to the three existing LNG trains and domestic gas plant on Barrow Island," Hearne said. "This will maintain an important source of clean-burning natural gas to customers that will enable energy transitions in countries across the Asia Pacific region." A modification of the existing Gorgon development, J-IC will involve the construction and installation of a 27,000-tonne normally unattended floating field control station, approximately 6,500 tonnes of subsea compression infrastructure, and a 135-km submarine power cable linked to Barrow Island.
The Plover Formation is one of two reservoirs in the Ichthys field of the Australian North West Shelf. The objective of this study is to build multiple scenario-based models to optimize development planning in preparation for the upcoming production phase. The authors have integrated data and interpretations of thin sections, cores, well logs, and seismic data to create multiple geological concepts for the field and to identify key geological uncertainties. The Ichthys liquefied natural gas project is one of the world's largest and involves the development of a gas-condensate field in the Browse Basin. The field is approximately 220 km offshore Western Australia and covers an area of approximately 800 km2 with an average water depth of approximately 250 m.
Manned vehicle transportation is one of the most important aspects of the oil and gas industry. The oil industry is dependent on the expertise that trucking providers bring, and would not have the ability to function otherwise. There are multiple types of trucks that must be utilized in drilling tasks to complete a job properly. One key factor to consider in land transportation safety is the driver. The major considerations include qualifications, training, and health.