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As the name indicates, this type of rig is located on a fixed structure previously installed at the well location. The structure may be a fixed jacketed platform, spar, tension leg platform (TLP), or gravity structure; whatever it is, the rig sits atop it. Fixed platforms may have as few as 3, or more than 50 well conductors. Generally, the drilling rig is not a permanent part of the fixed structure. However, on some occasions, the unit is left on the platform for future workovers or additional drilling, if removing it is uneconomical.
The objective of operating oil producing properties is consistently to deliver the maximum volume of highest API gravity oil to the pipeline at the lowest possible cost. Emulsions should be prevented wherever feasible and, when unpreventable, should be treated at the lowest cost. Eliminate production of water with oil where possible and practical. The emulsion treating system should be as small as possible, yet capable of adequately handling treating requirements on the lease. Such future needs may be anticipated when purchasing treating equipment; however, a needlessly oversized system incurs unnecessary expense and accomplishes nothing more than a properly sized system does.
ExxonMobil is looking to secure a semisubmersible to complete the drilling of a deepwater wildcat in the Flemish Pass offshore eastern Canada. The operator began drilling the Hampden K-41 probe in the spring of last year using Seadrill semisubmersible rig West Aquarius, but the unit was pulled off the well soon thereafter for reasons unknown. ExxonMobil is currently prequalifying companies to supply a mobile offshore drilling unit to continue the well at Hampden in Exploration License (EL) 1165A. The operator is targeting a mid-year 2022 start to the probe to be drilled in around 1175 m of water, some 454 km from St. John's, Newfoundland. Meanwhile, China's CNOCC has wrapped up drilling on its Pelles prospect, its first exploration well offshore Newfoundland. The prospect, in about 1163 m of water, is located within license EL 1144.
Artificial lift is a method used to lower the producing bottomhole pressure (BHP) on the formation to obtain a higher production rate from the well. This can be done with a positive-displacement downhole pump, such as a beam pump or a progressive cavity pump (PCP), to lower the flowing pressure at the pump intake. It also can be done with a downhole centrifugal pump, which could be a part of an electrical submersible pump (ESP) system. A lower bottomhole flowing pressure and higher flow rate can be achieved with gas lift in which the density of the fluid in the tubing is lowered and expanding gas helps to lift the fluids. Artificial lift can be used to generate flow from a well in which no flow is occurring or used to increase the flow from a well to produce at a higher rate.
The US Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has issued a second Security Directive related to the ongoing cybersecurity threat against pipeline systems that requires owners and operators of TSA-designated critical pipelines to implement several protections against cyber intrusions. The second directive requires owners and operators of critical pipelines that transport hazardous liquids and natural gas to implement specific mitigation measures to protect against ransomware attacks and other known threats to information technology and operational technology systems, develop and implement a cybersecurity contingency and recovery plan, and conduct a cybersecurity architecture design review. "The lives and livelihoods of the American people depend on our collective ability to protect our nation's critical infrastructure from evolving threats," said Secretary of Homeland Security Alejandro N. Mayorkas. "Through this Security Directive, DHS can better ensure the pipeline sector takes the steps necessary to safeguard their operations from rising cyberthreats, and better protect our national and economic security. Public/private partnerships are critical to the security of every community across our country, and DHS will continue working closely with our private sector partners to support their operations and increase their cybersecurity resilience."
Two of the biggest oilfield service companies in the world reported earnings this week and reiterated that while things are getting better, a total recovery from the pandemic-driven downturn is not on the agenda in the short term. Halliburton is coming off a relatively hot quarter and reported $227 million in profits, a 33% increase over the previous period. After reporting a total revenue of more than $3.71 billion, the company's earnings amounted to 26 cents per share which beat most analysts' expectations of 22 cents. The needle moved the opposite direction for Baker Hughes which reported an adjusted quarterly net income of $83 million, a 9% drop from the first 3 months of the year. Baker Hughes finished the quarter with earnings per share of 10 cents which missed the market estimate of 16 cents.
The Biden administration is poised to issue new cybersecurity regulations for pipelines and liquefied natural gas facilities in the aftermath of the April hack that temporarily paralyzed the nation's biggest liquid fuel conduit. The rules, which could be released as early as this week by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), are the second tranche by the agency since the attack on Colonial Pipeline. It represents a further move away from a system that until now had relied on self-reporting and other voluntary measures. "This Security Directive will apply to those pipeline systems that TSA has designated as critical to our nation's infrastructure and is urgently needed so as to better protect our critical pipeline infrastructure from cybersecurity threats," the Department of Homeland Security, which oversees the TSA, said in a statement that added that the directive would apply to liquefied natural gas facilities as well as pipelines. TSA officials were scheduled to brief the industry on the rules on 19 July, according to one person familiar with the matter who asked not to be identified discussing nonpublic information. Under the rules put in place in May, pipeline operators who fail to report cybersecurity attacks could be subject to fines and would also require pipeline companies to designate a representative to be available around the clock as a point of contact.
Loss of circulation is the uncontrolled flow of whole mud into a formation, sometimes referred to as a "thief zone." This article discusses causes, prevention, and remedial measures for lost circulation. Figure 1 shows partial and total lost-circulation zones. In partial lost circulation, mud continues to flow to surface with some loss to the formation. Total lost circulation, however, occurs when all the mud flows into a formation with no return to surface.
Early U.S. settlements commonly were located near salt lakes that supplied salt to the population. These salt springs were often contaminated with petroleum, and many of the early efforts to acquire salt by digging wells were rewarded by finding unwanted amounts of oil and gas associated with the saline waters. In the Appalachian Mountains, saline water springs commonly occur along the crests of anticlines. In 1855, it was found that petroleum distillation produced light oil that was, as an illuminant, similar to coal oil and better than whale oil. This knowledge spurred the search for saline waters containing oil. With the methods of the salt producers, Colonel Edward Drake drilled a well on Oil Creek, near Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859.
Introduction Progressing cavity pumping (PCP) systems derive their name from the unique, positive displacement pump that evolved from the helical gear pump concept first developed by Rene Moineau in the late 1920s. Although these pumps are now most commonly referred to as progressing cavity (PC) pumps, they also are called screw pumps or Moineau pumps. PC pumps initially were used extensively as fluid transfer pumps in a wide range of industrial and manufacturing applications, with some attempts made to use them for the surface transfer of oilfield fluids. However, it was not until after the development of synthetic elastomers and adhesives in the late 1940s that PC pumps could be applied effectively in applications involving petroleum-based fluids. Except for several limited field trials, it was not until the late 1970s that a concerted effort was made to use PC pumps as a method of artificial lift for the petroleum industry.