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The field was unitized to facilitate the implementation of a gravity drainage project using crestal gas injection. Gas injection began in 1975. Two types of gases were injected. All produced gas, less fuel and shrinkage, was reinjected into the gas cap areas, and beginning in 1977, 120 MMcf/D of flue gas (88% N2, 12% CO2) generated at a nearby plant was also injected. More recently, pure nitrogen from a cryogenic nitrogen rejection plant has been injected. In 1987, a tertiary immiscible gas-drive process was started in the East Fault Block where the aquifer had invaded a large portion of the oil column. This tertiary process has been called the double displacement process (DDP). In this process, the invading aquifer is being displaced to the original OWC so that the gas-drive gravity drainage process can remobilize much of the waterflood residual oil all the way down to this depth. Although the DDP is working, it is working more slowly than expected because of "higher viscosity oil (note the higher viscosity oil downdip discussed above), significant targeted oil volume found in lower-quality rock (in bypassed-oil zones), and lower-than-expected oil relative permeability."
Horizontal wells are high-angle wells (with an inclination of generally greater than 85) drilled to enhance reservoir performance by placing a long wellbore section within the reservoir. Horizontal Well contrasts with an extended-reach well, which is a high-angle directional well drilled to intersect a target point. There was relatively little horizontal drilling activity before 1985. The Austin Chalk play is responsible for the boom in horizontal drilling activity in the U.S. Now, horizontal drilling is considered an effective reservoir-development tool. Horizontal wells are normally characterized by their buildup rates and are broadly classified into three groups that dictate the drilling and completion practices required, as shown in Table 1.
Emulsions are always a drain on the operating budget. It is almost impossible to eliminate emulsions during crude production; however, emulsion problems can be reduced and optimized by following good operating practices. The following points should be included in operating practices. Chemical-Demulsifier Development Based on Critical-Electric-Field Measurements. Husveg, T., Bilstad, T., Guinee, P.G.A. et al. 2009 A Cyclone based Low Shear Valve for Enhanced Oil-Water Separation. Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 4-7 May.
The carbon-free future should not be confused with a utopian future. A zero-carbon world will include the difficult realities experienced in Texas in February 2021. As shown in a graph of US EIA data, during the recent extreme cold event in Texas, wind and solar could not hold flat compared with their baseline the week before (4–8 February). Coal and nuclear remained mostly steady, while natural-gas producers ramped up supplies delivered to power plants by a factor of 4, helping people who were struggling to heat their homes. Natural gas may not receive well-deserved recognition from some quarters, and blackouts and loss of life still occurred, but our industry stepped up when people needed us most.
A new extended-release (ER) scale-inhibitor technology showing significantly increased lifetimes has been applied in the Permian Basin. Tomson Technologies and Group 2 Technologies, in partnership with Occidental Petroleum (Oxy), implemented a scale-squeeze program for this carrier system. It allows for fewer squeeze treatments, which results in lower chemical usage, decreased plugging risk, and reduced environmental impact. Squeeze programs are an effective field treatment strategy to prevent scale formation in wells for extended periods of time. However, in some cases, squeeze lifetimes can be short, leading to frequent re-squeezing and production decreases, lowering overall economic recoveries.
The initial oil rush in the late 1800s spread like wildfire through Pennsylvania, and by 1891 the state's annual crude output had hit 31 million barrels, or 58% of the nation's total oil production for that year. However, by the turn of the century the bloom was off the rose. Pennsylvania's once-robust oil allure had been eclipsed by finds in Texas, California, and Oklahoma, each spawning its own regional oil booms. Because it's important to understand the potential volume and impact of orphan wells in the US. In the infancy of the industry, plugging-and-abandonment (P&A) techniques were crude at best, if anyone even went to the trouble.
Arlen Edgar, 1981 SPE President and 1986 President of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME), died 14 June. Edgar attended Tarleton State University from 1952 to 1953 and graduated from the University of Texas at Austin with a degree in petroleum engineering in 1956. He joined Pan American Petroleum Corp. (which was later Amoco) in 1957. In 1961, he became associated with Leibrock, Landreth, Campbell, and Callaway consulting engineering firm, rising to manager of the Consulting Division. At the same time, he served as secretary and a director of Canada-based Kanata Exploration and southern Louisiana-based Offshore Exploration Company.
Cyclic-gas-injection-based enhanced oil recovery (CGEOR) in the Eagle Ford was begun in late 2012 by EOG Resources and, at the time of writing, has expanded to more than 30 leases by six operators (266 wells). An extensive EOR evaluation was initiated to analyze the results recorded in these leases. The authors write that CGEOR in Eagle Ford volatile oil can yield substantial increases in estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) with robust economics, depending on compressor use and field life. The Eagle Ford shale represents some of the world's richest source rocks. The Upper Cretaceous seafloor received abundant organic debris and preserved it in an anoxic environment.
When the CEO of Occidental Petroleum described the company's future this week, it was clear the company will not be moving away from hydrocarbons. By 2050, Occidental expects to still be a big oil company, but producing oil and natural gas is not likely to be its biggest source of revenue. Several decades from now, Vicki Hollub, the president and chief executive officer of Occidental, predicted that income from carbon capture and storage "will be bigger than oil production revenue." During the plenary session for the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTeC) she described how Occidental is scaling up its carbon-capture business, beginning with a facility in the Permian Basin with the capacity to capture 1 million tons of CO2 per year. First announced by Occidental in early 2019, design is in progress with construction expected in 2023. The planned capacity is 250 times greater than any such plant in existence and will be an early test of the economics of large-scale carbon capture.
Recently released data from the Texas Independent Producers & Royalty Owners Association (TIPRO) showed improving economic conditions and growing demand for oil and natural gas this year in Texas. Employment trends in the Texas upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors for the second quarter (Q2) of 2021 were analyzed, which showed a net increase of nearly 8,800 direct jobs in the first half of the year compared to the second half of 2020, for a total of 168,000 upstream jobs in the state. According to TIPRO's workforce analysis released on 20 June, there were 73,687 total job postings for the Texas oil and natural gas industry in Q2 of 2021, of which 12,224 were unique. The top three cities by total unique oil and natural gas job postings included Houston (3,455), Midland (993) and Odessa (663). The top three companies ranked by unique job postings were Delek US Holdings (1,150), Baker Hughes Company (740), and Halliburton Company (700).