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This chapter concerns gas injection into oil reservoirs to increase oil recovery by immiscible displacement. The use of gas, either of a designed composition or at high-enough pressure, to result in the miscible displacement of oil is not discussed here; for a discussion of that topic, see the chapter on miscible flooding in this section of the Handbook. A variety of gases can and have been used for immiscible gas displacement, with lean hydrocarbon gas used for most applications to date. Historically, immiscible gas injection was first used for reservoir pressure maintenance. The first such projects were initiated in the 1930s and used lean hydrocarbon gas (e.g., Oklahoma City field and Cunningham pool in the United States and Bahrain field in Bahrain). Over the decades, a considerable number of immiscible gas injection projects have been undertaken, some with excellent results and others with poor performance. Reasons for this range of performance are discussed in this chapter. At the end of this chapter, a variety of case studies are presented that briefly describe several of the successful immiscible gas injection projects. Gas injection projects are undertaken when and where there is a readily available supply of gas. This gas supply typically comes from produced solution gas or gas-cap gas, gas produced from a deeper gas-filled reservoir, or gas from a relatively close gas field. The primary physical mechanisms that occur as a result of gas injection are (1) partial or complete maintenance of reservoir pressure, (2) displacement of oil by gas both horizontally and vertically, (3) vaporization of the liquid hydrocarbon components from the oil column and possibly from the gas cap if retrograde condensation has occurred or if the original gas cap contains a relict oil saturation, and (4) swelling of the oil if the oil at original reservoir conditions was very undersaturated with gas. Gas injection is particularly effective in high-relief reservoirs where the process is called "gravity drainage" because the vertical/gravity aspects increase the efficiency of the process and enhance recovery of updip oil residing above the uppermost oil-zone perforations. The decision to apply immiscible gas injection is based on a combination of technical and economic factors. Deferral of gas sales is a significant economic deterrent for many potential gas injection projects if an outlet for immediate gas sales is available.
A variety of gases can and have been used for immiscible gas displacement, with lean hydrocarbon gas used for most applications to date. Historically, immiscible gas injection was first used for reservoir pressure maintenance. The first such projects were initiated in the 1930s and used lean hydrocarbon gas (e.g., Oklahoma City field and Cunningham pool in the US and Bahrain field in Bahrain). Over the decades, a considerable number of immiscible gas injection projects have been undertaken, some with excellent results and others with poor performance. This page discusses gas injection into oil reservoirs to increase oil recovery by immiscible displacement. The use of gas, either of a designed composition or at high-enough pressure, to result in the miscible displacement of oil is not discussed here; for a discussion of that topic, see Miscible injection enhanced oil recovery (EOR).
Consider lining up the perforations. A handful of speakers at the recent SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference talked about improved fracturing results with oriented perforating--shooting the holes at the same place in the casing, often the top. This breaks from designs that arranged the holes in a helical pattern with each charge angled 60 from the previous one. "We did see indications we are getting better production from oriented perforating," said Blake Horton, senior completions engineer for Ovintiv (SPE 204177). Production gains were also reported by ConocoPhillips which compared production from similar wells with and without oriented perforating.
Introduction Petroleum data analytics is a solid engineering application of data science in petroleum-engineering-related problems. The engineering application of data science is defined as the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to model physical phenomena purely based on facts (e.g., field measurements and data). The main objective of this technology is the complete avoidance of assumptions, simplifications, preconceived notions, and biases. One of the major characteristics of petroleum data analytics is its incorporation of explainable artificial intelligence (XAI). While using actual field measurements as the main building blocks of modeling physical phenomena, petroleum data analytics incorporates several types of machine-learning algorithms, including artificial neural networks, fuzzy set theory, and evolutionary computing.
Introduction The three primary functions of a drilling fluid--the transport of cuttings out of the wellbore, prevention of fluid influx, and the maintenance of wellbore stability--depend on the flow of drilling fluids and the pressures associated with that flow. For example, if the wellbore pressure exceeds the fracture pressure, fluids will be lost to the formation. If the wellbore pressure falls below the pore pressure, fluids will flow into the wellbore, perhaps causing a blowout. It is clear that accurate wellbore pressure prediction is necessary. To properly engineer a drilling fluid system, it is necessary to be able to predict pressures and flows of fluids in the wellbore. The purpose of this chapter is to describe in detail the calculations necessary to predict the flow performance of various drilling fluids for the variety of operations used in drilling and completing a well. Overview Drilling fluids range from relatively incompressible fluids, such as water and brines, to ...
US shale producers Cabot Oil & Gas and Cimarex Energy are the latest to declare a "merger of equals" in a deal valued at around $17 billion, based on recent equity prices. Announced today, the terms of the deal will result in Cimarex shareholders owning about 50.5% of the combined company and Cabot shareholders owning approximately 49.5%. The deal brings together Houston-based Cabot's gas-rich portfolio, comprising almost 173,000 acres in the Marcellus Shale, with Cimarex's oil-dominated 560,000 net acres in the Permian Basin and Anadarko Basin. On a pro forma basis, the merged company will produce around 600,000 BOE/D from the three basins. The companies expect $100 million in savings to materialize within 2 years of the deal closing and to generate around $4.7 billion in free cash flow from 2022 to 2024.
Brinkley, Kourtney (Devon Energy) | Ingle, Trevor (Devon Energy) | Haffener, Jackson (Devon Energy) | Chapman, Philip (Devon Energy) | Baker, Scott (Devon Energy) | Hart, Eric (Devon Energy) | Haustveit, Kyle (Devon Energy) | Roberts, Jon (Devon Energy)
Abstract This case study details the use of Sealed Wellbore Pressure Monitoring (SWPM) to improve the characterization of fracture geometry and propagation during stimulation of inter-connected stacked pay in the South Texas Eagle Ford Shale. The SWPM workflow utilizes surface pressure gauges to detect hydraulically induced fracture arrivals athorizontal monitor locations adjacent to the stimulated wellbore (Haustveit et al. 2020). A stacked and staggered development in Dewitt County provided the opportunity to jointly evaluateprimary completion and recompletion efforts spanning three reservoir target intervals. Fivemonitor wells at varying distances across the unit were employed for SWPM during the stimulation of four wells. An operational overview, analysis of techniques, correlation with seismic attributes, image log interpretations, and fracture model calibration are provided. Outputs from this workflow allow for a refined analysis ofthe overall completion strategy. The high-density, five well monitor array recorded a total of 160 fracture arrivals at varying vertical and lateral distances, with far-field fracture arrivalsprovidingsignificant insight into propagation rates and geometry. Apronounced trend occurred in both arrival frequency and volumes pumped as monitor locations increased in distance from the treatment well. Specific to target zone isolation, it was identified that traversing vertically in section through a high stress interval yielded a 30% reduction inarrival frequency. An indirect relationship between horizontal distance and arrival frequency was also observed when monitoring from the same interval. A decrease in fracture arrivals from 70% down to 8% was realized as offset distance increased from 120 to 1,700 ft. The results from this study have proven to be instrumental in guiding interdisciplinary discussion. Assessing fracture geometry and propagation during stimulation, particularly in the co-development of a stacked pay reservoir, is paramount to the determination of proper completion volume, perforation design, and well spacing. Leveraging the observations of SWPM ultimately provides greater confidence in field development strategy and economic optimization.
Dontsov, Egor (ResFrac Corporation) | Suarez-Rivera, Roberto (W. D. Von Gonten Laboratories) | Panse, Rohit (W. D. Von Gonten Laboratories) | Quinn, Christopher (W. D. Von Gonten Laboratories) | LaReau, Heather (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Suter, Kirke (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Hines, Chris (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Montgomery, Ryan (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Koontz, Kyle (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.)
Abstract As the number of wells drilled in regions with existing producing wells increases, understanding the detrimental impact of these by the depleted zone around parent wells becomes more urgent and important. This understanding should include being able to predict the extent and heterogeneity of the depleted region near the pre-existing wells, the resulting altered stress field, and the effect of this on newly created fractures from adjacent child wells. In this paper we present a workflow that addresses the above concern in the Eagle Ford shale play, using numerical simulations of fracturing and reservoir flow, to define the effect of the depletion zone on child wells and match their field production data. We utilize an ultra-fast hydraulic fracture and depletion model to conduct several hundred numerical simulations, with varying values of permeability and surface area, seeking for cases that match the field production data. Multiple solutions exist that match the field data equally well, and we used additional field production data of parent-child well-interaction, to select the most plausible model. Results show that the depletion zone is strongly non-uniform and that large reservoir regions remain undepleted. We observe two important effects of the depleted zone on fractures from child wells drilled adjacent to the parents. Some fractures propagate towards low pressure zones and do not contribute to production. Others are repelled by the higher stress region that develops around the depletion zone, propagate into undepleted rock, and have production rates commensurate to that from other child wells drilled away from depleted region. The observations are validated by the field data. Results are being used to optimize well placement and well spacing for subsequent field operations, with the objective to increase the effectiveness of the child wells.
Abstract This paper explores a holistic approach to characterize trouble stages by applying automated event recognition of abnormal pressure increases and associating those events to formation and operational causes. This analysis of pressure increases provides insight into the potential causes of operational difficulties, and the related diagnostics can suggest improvements to future pump schedules. Improving how stages are pumped is profitable both in the short-term (reducing wasted fluid and chemicals, and other remediation measures) and in the long-term (increased well productivity). Quantifying how design decisions ultimately affect operations can help decrease the frequency of operational problems and help realize these gains. In this study, the identification of problematic frac stages was initially performed manually (stage-by-stage) using a cloud-based hydraulic fracture data application. During this process, the team recognized that the problem stages had their own characteristic pressure signature - a sudden unexplained pressure increase in the absence of rate changes. A machine learning algorithm was then developed to automatically identify this type of signature. Additionally, previously published machine learning algorithms were used to recognize other operational events of interest, e.g., when proppant reaches the perforations. Then by combining the various events and creating short search windows around each abnormal pressure increase, it is possible to find concurrent operations that may be associated with the observed pressure behavior. A subsequent statistical analysis revealed that abnormal pressure increases often coincided with changes in proppant concentration in problem stages (stages with abnormal treating pressure behavior). This behavior may be due to near-wellbore effects caused by the changing fluid flow dynamics. Furthermore, it was observed that treating pressures that behaved contrary to hydrostatic pressure effects may be useful in identifying when injectivity is lost and provide an early signal for screen outs. Through this holistic approach, we were able to identify trouble stages and discern some diagnostics for automated detection of abnormal treating pressure increases. The team was able to identify areas within the stages that were inefficiently pumped, resulting in cost-savings through optimization of proppant and friction reducer (FR) loadings while maintaining a level of caution to prevent screen outs. Finally, the automated detection of pressure anomalies offers a pathway to the real-time prediction and avoidance of operational difficulties such as pressure outs and screen outs.
Abstract With recent advances in downhole imaging technology, it has become evident that surface perforation testing does not directly translate to downhole conditions. A total of 279 pre- and 595 post- fracture treatment perforations were imaged in this analysis. Pre-treatment perforation hole size was highly variable, even with oriented equal-entry charges. Because of high pre-fracture treatment variability, it is not recommended to use an average diameter of unstimulated perforations to evaluate cluster efficiency of perforations post-fracture treatment. Ideally, perforations should be individually imaged before and after treatment for direct comparison. However, since pre-treatment imaging is costly, an alternate methodology is presented. The findings in this paper will challenge current understanding of actual pre-treatment hole sizes, their variability, and their implications on cluster efficiency. Cluster efficiency cutoff limits have historically been subjective and promoted a false confidence in the ability of Completions Engineers to extend stage lengths and adjust perforation designs. A more stringent and calculated method of determining cluster efficiency is presented. Utilizing both wireline pumpdown for pre-treatment measurements, and coil tubing for post-treatment measurements, downhole imaging technology was deployed to measure perforations from four separate perforation charge manufacturers for pre- and post- treatment erosional analysis. Additionally, while understanding the strike/slip stress state of the Anadarko basin, perforations were oriented at 90° and 270° (degrees from top of wellbore), parallel to the maximum rock stress, promoting a shorter and less tortuous path to the fracture initiation point. Perforating at 90° and 270° reduced tortuosity and surface treating pressure, promoted a less variable pre-treatment perforation hole size due to its symmetry, and resulted in a significant increase in cluster efficiency verses pervious designs. This project effectively optimized a perforation design utilizing pre- and post- fracture treatment perforation imaging and a thorough understanding of pre-treatment perforation hole size to evaluate the effectiveness of stress-targeted, oriented perforating and its effect on cluster efficiency, tortuosity, and pre-treatment hole size variability. The optimized design resulted in 84%-97% cluster efficiency and reduced surface treating pressure by 770 psi. This workflow can be applied by Completions Engineers to any unconventional basin where plug and perf design is utilized.