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Introduction Petroleum data analytics is a solid engineering application of data science in petroleum-engineering-related problems. The engineering application of data science is defined as the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to model physical phenomena purely based on facts (e.g., field measurements and data). The main objective of this technology is the complete avoidance of assumptions, simplifications, preconceived notions, and biases. One of the major characteristics of petroleum data analytics is its incorporation of explainable artificial intelligence (XAI). While using actual field measurements as the main building blocks of modeling physical phenomena, petroleum data analytics incorporates several types of machine-learning algorithms, including artificial neural networks, fuzzy set theory, and evolutionary computing.
Abstract In the past decades several hundred stimulation procedures have been performed in the Golden Trend fields of Oklahoma. The outcome of these stimulation jobs have not been the same for all wells. The effectiveness of the stimulation is a function of several factors including reservoir quality, completion and stimulation techniques. Completion and stimulation techniques can be further itemized as completion type such as open hole versus cased hole, type and amount of fluids and proppant and the rate at which they are pumped into the formation. This project was supported by DOE and GTI in connection with the DOE's Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) project.The project was implemented in three fields in the Golden Trend in Oklahoma.Detailed production and completion data analyses revealed that the most influential controllable parameter effecting the production rate and ultimate recovery was fracture stimulation, and as such, the bulk of efforts were focused on determination of optimized hydraulic fracturing procedure. Detail stimulation data from more than 230 wells in the Golden Trend fields of Oklahoma operated by three independent operators were collected and analyzed using a new best practices analysis methodology. The study was performed for gas and oil bearing formations. Among the findings of this comprehensive study were the best stimulation practices in carbonate formations that are primarily gas producing, and clastic formations, from which both oil and gas are produced. During his study authors were able to identify the best type of fluid, the most optimal injection rate and proppant concentration for both types of formations. In this paper application of a new methodology that was used to perform the best practices analysis on the Golden Trend fields of Oklahoma is presented. Introduction Identification of best practices in the oil and gas operations is gaining unprecedented momentum. Companies that have gathered large amounts of data now realize that they own a valuable commodity (above and beyond the hydrocarbon) that can play an important role in increasing efficiency in their day to day operations. The question is how this vast amount of data can be used in order to help the company's bottom-line. This paper attempts to address this question by introducing a newly developed methodology that enables oil and gas companies to deduce information and knowledge from the existing data. The deduced information and knowledge can then be used in developing business rules and decision making. The new methodology is named "Intelligent Best Practices Analysis" . It incorporates a hybrid form of intelligent systems that includes artificial neural networks , genetic algorithms  and fuzzy logic  to achieve its objective that is the systematic analysis of large amounts of data in order to decipher and deduce relevant knowledge that can be used in business and engineering decision making. In a previous paper  the theory and methodology of "Intelligent Best Practices Analysis" was presented in detail and therefore it will not be discussed in this article. This paper is dedicated to application of this methodology to a database of stimulation practices in the Golden Trend fields of Oklahoma to demonstrate its use and benefits. In the Golden Trend fields of Oklahoma, like many other oil fields, the outcome of stimulation jobs have not been the same for all wells. The effectiveness of the stimulation is a function of several factors including reservoir quality, completion and stimulation practices. Detail stimulation data from more than 230 wells in the Golden Trend operated by three independent operators were collected and analyzed using this methodology.
Griffin, L.G. (Pinnacle Technologies) | Sullivan, R.B. (Anadarko Petroleum Corp.) | Wolhart, S.L. (Pinnacle Technologies) | Waltman, C.K. (Pinnacle Technologies) | Wright, C.A. (Pinnacle Technologies) | Weijers, L. (Pinnacle Technologies) | Warpinski, N.R. (Sandia National Laboratories)
Abstract Anadarko Petroleum Corporation has conducted a study to improve hydraulic fracturing and field development in the Bossier sands in the East Texas Basin. As part of this study, hydraulic fracture mapping was performed with microseismic imaging on three wells completed in the Bossier sands. Microseismic fracture mapping is an emerging technology to optimize development of hydraulically fractured reservoirs. This paper demonstrates the use of microseismic mapping under high temperature (300°F) conditions. It also demonstrates how the directly measured results can be implemented to calibrate a 3D fracture growth model. The study shows mapping results for waterfracs and hybrid fracture treatments (which utilize slickwater to generate the fracture geometry and crosslinked gel to transport the proppant) in the Bossier. Fracture azimuth was fairly consistent for the three wells and fit with earlier surface tiltmeter mapping result in this area. Fracture growth asymmetry was observed and is discussed in the paper. Payzone coverage was generally good but could be improved and created fracture lengths varied significantly between wells. Introduction This paper provides the microseismic mapping results for a three well hydraulic fracture treatment project conducted by Anadarko in the summer of 2001. The project was performed in the East Texas Basin and targeted intervals within the Bossier sand in newly drilled wells. This was part of a larger project done to evaluate "waterfrac" and "hybrid" fracture treatments utilizing fracture mapping, geomechanical modeling, production, and pressure transient analysis in the Bossier sand (Figure 1). The goals of this mapping project were to determine the fracture dimensions (height and half-length) and orientation for both types of treatments. Mapping these fracture treatments at 13,000 ft proved challenging due to the high temperatures and pressures encountered.
Abstract This paper presents results from an evaluation of water-frac stimulation treatments in the Bossier tight gas sand play in the East Texas Basin. The primary objective of our study was to compare the stimulation effectiveness of conventional water-fracs with a hybrid water-frac technology. The hybrid water-fracs combine the advantages and benefits of both conventional gel and water-frac treatments. Stimulation effectiveness, measured in terms of fracture half-length and conductivity, was evaluated using short-term pressure buildup testing integrated with decline type curve analysis of long-term gas production data. The results of our study indicate that we can achieve longer effective fracture half-lengths and higher effective fracture conductivities more consistently using the hybrid water-frac technique. Introduction Most wells completed in tight gas sands require stimulation to achieve economic production. Early hydraulic fracture treatments utilized polymer gel fluids with large proppant concentrations in an attempt to create long, highly conductive fractures. Although excellent for transporting proppant, these gels often damaged the fracture, were difficult to clean up, usually generated high net fracturing pressures, and were expensive. Under these conditions, minimal effective stimulation was achieved, sometimes resulting in sub-economic wells. Water fracturing technology was developed as a less expensive alternative to conventional gel treatments. Water fracturing or "water-fracs" were initially designed to generate fractures by injecting water with little or no proppant. "Slick water-fracs" added linear gels or friction reducers to the water. Several previous studies have suggested that, when compared to conventional gel treatments, water-fracs can generate similar or sometimes better production responses. Furthermore, even when conventional gel treatments generate longer propped fracture lengths than a water-frac, the presence of damaging gels may adversely affect well performance. Microseismic imaging has shown that water-fracs may generate very long fractures during treatment. However, the propped or effective fracture half-lengths may vary significantly depending on both proppant concentration and placement effectiveness. The use of little or no proppant in a water-frac may also result in low fracture conductivities. Recent laboratory studies have shown fracture conductivity may be either proppant- or asperity-dominated depending on proppant concentration, proppant size and strength, and rock mechanical properties. Under asperity-dominated conditions, the fracture conductivity is a function of fracture face asperities created when the rock is fractured. High conductivity water-fracs can be generated in the absence of proppant only when rock displacement creates ample surface roughness to provide sufficient fracture width. Similar observations were made with low-strength and/or low-concentration proppants. As a result, effective fracture conductivities are often difficult to predict when little or no proppant is used. The experimental studies also suggested proppant-dominated conditions could be achieved more consistently with high-concentration proppants. In order to capture the advantages and benefits of both conventional gel and water-frac treatments, we have applied a hybrid water-frac technique in the Bossier tight gas sand play. These hybrid water-fracs combine the advantages and benefits of both conventional gel and water-frac treatments. We demonstrate the successful application of this stimulation technology with an evaluation of 18 wells from five Bossier tight gas sand fields located in Freestone and Robertson Counties, Texas. Stimulation treatments for the study wells range from water-fracs with little to no sand, water-fracs with large sand concentrations, and hybrid water-fracs. We measured stimulation effectiveness using short-term pressure buildup testing integrated with long-term decline type curve analysis of gas production data.