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If the problem is formation damage, then matrix acidizing may be an appropriate treatment to restore production. This page discusses ways to evaluate whether a well is a good candidate for acidizing. This plugging can be either mechanical or chemical. Mechanical plugging is caused by either introduction of suspended solids in a completion or workover fluid, or dispersion of in-situ fines by incompatible fluids and/or high interstitial velocities. Chemical plugging is caused by mixing incompatible fluids that precipitate solids.
France's TotalEnergies and Norway's Equinor are divesting their interests in Venezuela's extra-heavy crude oil Petrocedeño project onshore in the Orinoco Belt, leaving state-owned Petróleos de Venezuela (PdVSA) to hold 100% of the project's equity. Petrocedeño S.A. produces extra-heavy crude oil from the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela and transports it for upgrading and blending into a lighter crude suitable for export. US sanctions have seriously depressed the project's output, which S&P Global said can produce 202,000 B/D under normal operating conditions. But while commenting on the divestiture during a webcast on 29 July to report the company's financial results for Q2, TotalEnergies CEO Patrick Pouyanne assured analysts that the decision to divest was "not related to the political situation in Venezuela or to sanctions." Rather, the company considers it "inconsistent to employ Capex in the Orinoco Belt" given that shareholders in May approved a strategy to focus new oil investments only on projects with a low carbon intensity, Pouyanne said. Petrocedeño falls short of the criteria that TotalEnergies is now using to assess which oil projects will remain in its portfolio.
Equinor could play a critical role in Brazil's drive to boost its economy by opening up its gas markets. The Norwegian oil company operates two huge deepwater blocks with enough gas to lower prices in the country where big users pay some of the highest prices in the world. The development plan for one of those blocks, BM-C-33 in the Campos Basin, would deliver an average of 14 million m3/d of gas--about 15% of the country's gas demand on a high-consumption day, which is about 92 million m3/d, based on data from Rystad. A second project in the heart of the presalt, Bacalhau, could become a model for how an international oil company can market gas successfully in the country's richest oil play, the Santos Basin presalt. The gas potential in that play is also huge; the gas/oil ratio is high compared with other Brazilian fields but has largely been untapped.
Though expensive and complex, extended-reach drilling (ERD) is moving more into the mainstream as the industry is driven to develop frontier reserves in fragile environments like the Arctic where drilling from shore to offshore targets reduces a project's infrastructure costs and environmental footprint. A form of directional drilling, ERD is also being used increasingly to tap into hard-to-produce reservoirs, making viable projects that might otherwise be written off as noncommercial. This article highlights how the Russian Far East became the ERD epicenter in the past decade, given ExxonMobil and Rosneft's extensive use of ERD in developing Arctic resources offshore Sakhalin Island, and how ERD is becoming more widely used in regions as diverse as the Gulf of Thailand, offshore Brazil, and the Arab Gulf. By definition, an extended-reach well (ERW) is one in which the ratio of the measured depth (MD) vs. the true vertical depth (TVD) is at least 2:1 (PetroWiki). An ERW differs from a horizontal well in that the ERW is a high-angle directional well drilled to intersect a target point, a feat requiring specialized planning to execute well construction.
ExxonMobil made another new discovery in the Stabroek Block offshore Guyana but came away empty with a well on the Canje block. The Longtail-3 well on the Stabroek block struck 230 ft of net pay, including newly identified reservoirs below those intervals found in the Longtail-1 probe. "Longtail-3, combined with our recent discovery at Uaru-2, has the potential to increase our resource estimate within the Stabroek block, demonstrating further growth of this world-class resource and our high-potential development opportunities offshore Guyana," said Mike Cousins, senior vice president of exploration and new ventures at ExxonMobil. Exxon operates the 6.6-million-acre Stabroek Block as part of a consortium that includes Hess and China's CNOOC. The new well was drilled 2 miles south of Longtail-1, which was drilled in 2018 and encountered 256 ft of oil-bearing sandstone.
The 2021 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (ATCE) will take place next month in Dubai from 21–23 September. Hosted by Dragon Oil, the conference offers a technical agenda that reflects the changing oil and gas industry and its effects on the full spectrum of disciplines. The industry's leadership role in adapting to the world's shifting markets and priorities will be highlighted throughout the event with top-level speakers and panelists. The technical sessions will focus on presentations of papers selected by the program committee to guide attendees in understanding and applying innovative and cost-effective technologies in all aspects of the industry throughout the life cycle of an asset. The power of data analytics has evolved throughout all disciplines and has led to a deeper understanding of drilling, completions, production and operations, and reservoirs.
Flow assurance in ultradeep water is a major issue for production. The Atlanta field, which produces heavy oil in ultradeep water, is a project combining several challenges: hydrates formation, emulsion tendency, scale formation, foaming, and high viscosities. The complete paper discusses innovations and technologies applied to make Atlanta a successful case of ultradeepwater heavy-oil production. Discovered in 2001, the Atlanta field is in the presalt exclusion area in the north of the Santos Basin, 185 km southeast of Rio de Janeiro, at a water depth of 1550 m. The postsalt reservoir is contained in the Eocene interval and is characterized by high net-to-gross sands (82–94%) with a high average porosity of 36% and high permeabilities in the range of 4–6 Darcies.
Decommissioning of offshore assets in Brazil is subject to high levels of uncertainty because of Tubastraea, an invasive species of sun coral. This species has a high capacity for dispersion and recruitment and has been associated with the replacement of native species in rocky shores, exerting a serious effect on native biodiversity. The complete paper explores the biology of the invasive species, aiming to identify methods to eliminate or diminish its spread. The authors write that data generated in this study will foster the development of effective technologies in coral-species management, whether species are invasive or threatened. Originally from the Coral Triangle in the Pacific Ocean--a highly diverse region with hundreds of coral species--Tubastraea was first observed in the Campos Basin in the 1980s.
Hess and ExxonMobil announced a significant oil discovery on the Stabroek Block offshore Guyana at Whiptail. The Whiptail-1 well encountered 75 m of net pay in high-quality, oil-bearing sandstone reservoirs. Drilling is also ongoing at Whiptail-2, which is located 3 miles northeast of Whiptail-1 and has encountered 51 m of net pay. Drilling will continue at both wells to test deeper targets, and the results will be evaluated for future development. The Whiptail discovery is located approximately 4 miles southeast of the Uaru-1 discovery, which was announced in January 2020, and approximately 3 miles west of the Yellowtail field.
Interwell tracer tests are widely used. This article reviews some of the studies reported in open literature. The selection introduces different problems that have been addressed, but the original papers should be studied to obtain a more detailed description of the programs. The Snorre field is a giant oil reservoir (sandstone) in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Injection water and gas were monitored with tracers, 18 and the resulting tracer measurements are discussed in this page.