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Environmental hazards can be reduced or prevented by the proper choice of chemical additives at optimum concentrations. Pressure tests are performed with water or brine to ensure the absence of leaks in pressure piping, tubing, and packer. Leaks on the surface can endanger service personnel, and subsurface leaks can cause subsequent corrosion of tubing and casing in the annulus. Anyone around acid tanks or pressure connections should wear safety goggles for eye protection. Those handling chemicals and valves should wear protective gauntlet-type, acid-resistant gloves.
Corrosion of metal in the presence of water is a common problem across many industries. The fact that most oil and gas production includes co-produced water makes corrosion a pervasive issue across the industry. Age and presence of corrosive materials such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exacerbate the problem. Corrosion control in oil and gas production is reviewed in depth in Treseder and Tuttle, Brondel, et al., and NACE, from which some of the following material is abstracted. Iron is inherently (thermodynamically) sufficiently active to react spontaneously with water (corrosion), generating soluble iron ions and hydrogen gas. The utility of iron alloys depends on minimizing the corrosion rate. Corrosion of steel is an "electrochemical process," involving the transfer of electrons from iron atoms in the metal to hydrogen ions or oxygen in water. This separation of the overall corrosion process into two reactions is not an electrochemical nuance; these processes generally do take place at separate locations on the same piece of metal. This separation requires the presence of a medium to complete the electrical circuit between anode (site of iron dissolution) and cathode (site for corrodant reduction). Electrons travel in the metal phase, but the ions involved in the corrosion process cannot. Ions require the presence of water; hence, corrosion requires the presence of water.
Equal to P1. Glossary of Petroleum Resources Management System - June 2018 (revised version) The process (and associated costs) of returning part or all of a project to a safe and environmentally compliant condition when operations cease. Examples include, but are not limited to, the removal of surface facilities, wellbore plugging procedures, and environmental remediation. In some instances, there may be salvage value associated with the equipment removed from the project. ADR costs are presumed to be without consideration of any salvage value, unless presented as "ADR net of salvage." Arithmetic summation of incremental categories may yield different results from probabilistic aggregation of distributions. Method used in resources estimation in the exploration and early development stages (including improved recovery projects) when direct measurement is limited. Based on evaluator's assessment of similarities of the analogous reservoir(s) together with the development plan.
An oil facility encompasses the equipment between the oil wells and the pipeline or other transportation system. The purpose of an oil facility is to make the oil ready for sale to the purchaser's standards (maximum allowable water, salt, and other impurities). This article describes the key equipment and functions found in an oil facility. Figure 1 is a block diagram of a simple oil facility. Each of the blocks is described here, except for gas dehydration, which is covered in Gas Facilities.
Oil and gas wells produce a mixture of hydrocarbon gas, condensate or oil; water with dissolved minerals, usually including a large amount of salt; other gases, including nitrogen, carbon dioxide (CO2), and possibly hydrogen sulfide (H2S); and solids, including sand from the reservoir, dirt, scale, and corrosion products from the tubing. The purpose of oil and gas processing is to separate, remove, or transform these various components to make the hydrocarbons ready for sale. The goal is to produce oil that meets the purchaser's specifications that define the maximum allowable amounts of the following: Similarly, the gas must be processed to meet purchaser's water vapor and hydrocarbon dewpoint specifications to limit condensation during transportation. The equipment between the wells and the pipeline, or other transportation system, is called an oilfield facility. An oilfield facility is different from a refinery or chemical plant in a number of ways.
Offshore production operations can be either very similar to or radically different from land-based installations. Except for a few innovative installations, wellheads and Christmas trees on platforms are basically the same as for land wells (see Fig 1). Control valves, safety valves, and piping outlets are configured the same and use the same or similar components. Some of the valves probably will have pneumatic or hydraulic actuators to facilitate remote and rapid closure in an emergency. Also, some Christmas trees may have composite block valves instead of individual valves flanged together.
Production operations in the offshore artic regions are within the reach of existing technology. Procedures used onshore and offshore in less hostile regions, however, must be modified to meet the challenges of the harsh climatic conditions in the remote locations. In the last decade, the major area of industry interest has been the offshore region of Alaska and Canada. The environmental conditions vary significantly in each of these regions. The specific production system that is selected must be tailored to each unique combination of these factors to ensure safe oilfield development.
From a historic point of view, as jackup drilling vessels drilled in deeper water, the need to transfer the weight of the well to the seabed and provide a disconnect-and-reconnect capability became clearly beneficial. This series of hangers, called mudline suspension equipment, provides landing rings and shoulders to transfer the weight of each casing string to the conductor and the sea bed. Each mudline hanger landing shoulder and landing ring centralizes the hanger body, and establishes concentricity around the center line of the well. Concentricity is important when tying the well back to the surface. In addition, each hanger body stacks down relative to the previously installed hanger for washout efficiency.