The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Abstract This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of hydraulic fracturing in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore. This research aims to identify the primary mechanisms underlying the complexities in both the fracture morphology and propagation of longitudinal fractures. The study shows that the perforation attributes and characteristics, the cement quality, and the reservoir heterogeneity have a significant impact on the resulting morphology and the trajectory of the propagating hydraulic fracture. The study is based on properties and conditions associated with a field study conducted in the Austin Chalk formation, and concludes that the pattern and the dimensions of the perforations are essential factors controlling the fracture initiation pressure and morphology. The results of the simulation studies provide insights into the principles and mechanisms controlling fracture branching and the initiation of longitudinal fractures in the near-wellbore region and can lead to improved operational designs for more effective fracturing treatments.
In December 2020, during the execution of hydraulic fracturing on a three-well pad in the Vaca Muerta unconventional shale reservoir, an annular communication suddenly occurred in one of the wells. This event took place during the execution of the ninth fracturing stage of 33 planned. After a thorough pressure analysis of this event and verification that all pressure barriers were correct and in place, it was decided to stop fracturing treatments in this well and complete pending fracturing stages in the other two wells of the pad until the problem was well understood and a solution was found.
Safe production from oil and gas wells always entails a two-barrier policy. In an offshore gas well, the primary barrier was breached while the secondary barrier was holding. Well fluids were observed in one of the tree ports during routine maintenance operations. The well was quickly made safe by closing a primary barrier, the downhole surface-controlled subsea safety valve, and installation of a secondary barrier in the form of plugs downhole. To bring production back, the root cause was investigated, and it was determined that the straight-bore metal-to-metal seal, which seals the tubing at the interface of the tree and the tubing hanger, was compromised.
Abstract A novel and alternate field-wide well integrity management system is presented that uses historical wireline acquired well integrity data along with relevant static and dynamic data to generate visually interactive and customizable well integrity maps, reports, and plots that could facilitate field development planning and reduce surveillance and well intervention efforts and costs. The initial system has been designed using two commonly acquired types of well integrity data, namely corrosion and cement evaluation data. However, the proposed solution can be extended to incorporate any type of cased hole or open-hole data. The key components of this novel system are a centralized database for all related data, customizable corrosion and cement quality maps, field characterization maps, candidate ranking lists, and a centralized repository for all historical processed logs and reports. To ensure the accuracy of the data visualization and data analytics, all the acquired wireline logs are first quality-checked, processed, and interpreted on a processing and interpretation platform such as Techlog (SLB software). The results are then organized and stored on an Oil Field Manager (OFM, SENSIA Software) compatible database such as Microsoft (MS) Access. Finally, the results are pushed to a visualization platform, such as OFM for subsequent data visualization and analytics. This management system aims to address the challenges associated with well integrity data. This data comes from many sources, uses different technologies, is acquired by different vendors, and as a result is stored in different formats. This makes it cumbersome for operators to extract actionable information from this data efficiently and accurately. The deployment of the proposed management system provides operators with a high-level view of the present well integrity status of the field, contains information on the well integrity history of the field, as well as has the potential to predict future well integrity related issues. Integration of relevant static and dynamic data also facilitates a deeper understanding of the field-wide well integrity by facilitating correlations between different well-level parameters. Based on all the data inputs and subsequent outputs, a candidate ranking system is generated which ranks the wells based on the prevalence and seriousness of well integrity issues, thereby alerting operators to take appropriate action. A future use-case of these maps is linkage with dynamic databases, which will enable continuous data flow through surface sensors and gauges. This will provide operators with a live, integrated snapshot of the production and well integrity performance of their assets. This novel well integrity management system is conceptualized to shift operators' focus from data gathering to data analytics by leveraging and integrating multiple sources of massive data and providing operators with a high-level snapshot of the well integrity status of the entire field. This system is envisioned to improve efficiency, optimize workovers, and greatly reduce the carbon footprint associated with well intervention operations. Eventually, through enhanced data analytics, operators can exercise greater control over the well integrity of their fields.
Almasmoom, Salahaldeen S. (Saudi Aramco, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) | Santoso, Gagok I. (SLB, State, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) | AlDaboos, Mostafa H. (SLB, State, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)
Abstract The latest borehole ultrasonic and resistivity imaging technology in oil-based mud (OBM) environment enabled acquiring high-resolution image logs to ease identifying the several borehole breakouts and washed-out enlargements in a tight carbonate reservoir. However, the logs deliver limited information when correlating drilling practices to the resultant borehole shape and geomechanics stresses. This paper will link the different patterns which associate the tight carbonate rock geomechanics with the different drilling activities using both high-resolution ultrasonic image and caliper logs, and advanced drilling interpretation. The recently developed logging-while-drilling (LWD) technology enables acquiring high-resolution borehole images for fracture interpretation. Furthermore, it also acquires high-resolution ultrasonic caliper log (180 sector resolution) of the drilled wellbore, painting a picture of the internal diameter of the drilled wellbore. When it comes to horizontal wells, the geomechanics evaluation of the drilled rock becomes more challenging; when correlating the lateral variations and laminations with the offset wells data evaluation. Therefore, the high-resolution ultrasonic caliper logs acquired while drilling the lateral sections through tight carbonate reservoir have been used to discern several wellbore enlargements. Those enlargements are linked with the several drilling activity patterns applied while drilling and tripping through the lateral section. Linking those drilling patterns with the resultant wellbore enlargements revealed several findings that can link the applied drilling practices with the rock geomechanics evaluation. The real-time apparent resistivity images are used to pick formation dips and assist geo-steer through the target sweet spot while drilling the lateral section. Both ultrasonic and apparent resistivity images acquired in a recorded mode are used to interpret fractures, faults, cross-beddings, and secondary porosity intervals. The processed high-resolution caliper image logs (180 sectors) highlight the direct relationship among the drilling parameters applied while drilling, the resultant wellbore trajectory (the small changes in inclination and azimuth), and the resultant wellbore shapes (and in turn the tortuosity level in the wellbores). The processed logs are also used to estimate the effects of the different bottom-hole assembly (BHA) configurations on the wellbore shapes and tortuosity. The BHA configurations effects can be linked with the different applied drilling modes to also estimate the effects on the wellbore shape and tortuosity. Understanding the effects of the drilling processes allows differentiation between the drilling-induced shape artifacts and the geological causes for borehole tortuosity changes. Recommendations are gathered in an attempt to reduce wellbore damage associated with drilling and tripping activities as much as possible across the extended lateral section (wells converted to extended-reach wells).
Abstract The deep shale gas reservoir are high formation temperature and pore pressure in Sichuan Basin. Due to the unclear geomechanical characteristics of the reservoir, a large number of accidents occurred during the drilling operation. At the same time, the wellbore instability and frequent adjustment trajectory cause long drilling cycle, low drilling efficiency, and high drilling operation cost. To solve the above problems, the drilling mud weight is optimized based on the three-dimensional geomechanical research and by establishing the pore pressure, collapse pressure and fracture pressure (leakage pressure) models. The key technology of reducing drilling mud weight are used to significantly reduce the drilling mud loss. Field application shows that the mud weight is reduced from 2.15 g/cm to 1.87 g/cm, the average ROP increased by 44.1% from 8.4 m/h to 12.1 m/h, the average drilling operation cycle decreased by 40.7% from 54.2 days to 32.1 days, and the drilling performance and efficiency are significantly improved. The fine 3D geomechanical modeling technology has great promotion and reference significance for the performance and efficiency improvement of the deep shale gas horizontal well drilling operation in China.
Perozo, N. (Institute of Subsurface Energy Systems, Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Lower Saxony, Germany) | Amirhosseini, S. Fazel (Institute of Subsurface Energy Systems, Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Lower Saxony, Germany) | Tavakoli, M. (Institut für Materialprüfung und Werkstofftechnik Dr. Neubert GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Lower Saxony, Germany) | Holzmann, J. (Institute of Subsurface Energy Systems, Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Lower Saxony, Germany) | Neubert, V. (Institut für Materialprüfung und Werkstofftechnik Dr. Neubert GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Lower Saxony, Germany) | Jaeger, P. (Institute of Subsurface Energy Systems, Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Lower Saxony, Germany)
Abstract The main objective of the presented work is to evaluate the effect of hydrogen service conditions on the mechanical properties of API steel grades used for well completions. The evaluation methodology implies a preconditioning of the steel specimens to long-term exposures under high-pressure hydrogen atmospheres and compare the results of subsequent mechanical tests with those of steels not being exposed to this gas. The aim of this research is to compare the performance of different API grades when subjected to hydrogen service. The outcomings of the study will help to evaluate long-term integrity of completion systems and materials compatibility for hydrogen storage applications. Mechanical tests like notched-tensile tests, hardness determination and impact tests were performed, in order to detect the embrittlement of the metals by comparing results between specimens not previously charged with hydrogen and specimens being subjected to a hydrogen atmosphere under high-pressure. The notch tensile specimens were pre-stressed to 80% of the nominal yield strength, in order to force and assure the hydrogen diffusion into the notch area where localized increased tensile stresses are concentrated. Furthermore, by means of carrier gas hot extraction analysis the hydrogen content in the samples was measured, to give an indication of the absorption capacity of these grades under the stated conditions. The API grades L80, P110 and Q125 have been selected to represent a wide and popular selection of ductility and yield strength. All samples were subjected to a series of mechanical tests to determine the presence of hydrogen embrittlement. The results show different behavior of the materials after being exposed to a hydrogen atmosphere, from the noticeable decrease to even a "no effect" on the mechanical properties. The results of notch tensile tests of the steels L80 and Q125 are showing some level of hydrogen embrittlement, compared to P110, being the one least affected by the presence of this gas. The measurement of hydrogen content in the samples delivers similar results for all the grades. Microscopic analysis shows the structure of the crystal lattice of the steels studied, helping to understand, together with the state of stress, how sensitive the material is to be affected by hydrogen embrittlement. There is no literature that describes the hydrogen effect on the mechanical properties of API steels used for tubings and casings in well completions, nor their sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement. The results of this research are of great importance to give an idea of the compatibility of the steels that can be used for high-pressure hydrogen operations, such as hydrogen underground storage as well as to evaluate the potential recompletion or use of existing wells.
Franco, Nata (SLB, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia) | Corona, Mauricio (SLB, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia) | Davila, Andres (SLB, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia) | Aswal, Uttam (SLB, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia) | Aljuzayri, Mohammed (SLB, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia) | Albanawi, Sarah (SLB, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia) | Barrera, Edison (SLB, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia) | Syamsudhuha, Aldia (SLB, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia) | AlHassan, Murtada (SLB, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia) | Antonov, Maksim (SLB, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia)
Abstract Drilling the intermediate section of deep gas wells in a Middle East field is quite challenging due to geological and wellbore instability problems, and the associated risks such as total losses, twist-off, stuck pipe, and casing not reaching bottom. Casing-While-Drilling (CWD) combined with stage-cementing tool with inflatable external packer has been implemented in a 16″ intermediate section to prove the viability of the technology in such downhole conditions, and moreover, improve the operational economics of drilling this section with conventional drilling. Whereas CWD is a proven drilling technology worldwide and deployed across the field at shallower depths or smaller sizes, a proof-of-concept implementation would be needed in a deep gas well to establish the limits for the technology while drilling in a big hole size (16″) to a deep casing point (~5,000 ft). An extensive case study for the application of CWD was conducted, which covered the main technical concerns: torque while drilling, casing fatigue, drilling fluid strategy, float equipment and stage-cementing tool reliability, expected rate-of-penetration and bit design, drilling parameters road map, and contingencies. CWD level 2 technology was successfully implemented in the gas field for the first time. The technology had proven its viability in a deep big hole size by drilling approximately 500 ft in the above problematic section, and across the more challenging formations to a total depth of 6,501 ft. The section was drilled with 70 hours of on-bottom drilling and a total of 88.25 hours of tripping and circulation. A new benchmark was established for the reliability of float equipment and stage collar with constant rotation as reaching the total depth of a challenging drilling environment. Plastering effect also proved its liability as no losses was observed despite the high risk from offset wells. Additionally, no losses were induced in case of full circulation scenario, and cementing operations completed successfully with no losses. Low vibrations, and smooth torque observed while drilling. The main advantages of this implementation in gas wells are mitigating the potential risk of wellbore instability related to lost circulation, minimizing potential twist-off and stuck pipe events, and reducing the hole exposure time due to excessive reaming while tripping. Shale reaction and hole bridging in the formation can be avoided since no tripping is required. CWD has been proved as a feasible technology for challenging intermediate sections in gas wells. Further developing the technology in the field for risk mitigations and optimizing the operational economics are ongoing, such as introduction of new CWD PDC bit and performance improvement from identified lessons identified. This manuscript will share the developing strategy behind proof-of-concept and technology evolution and will serve as a reference for service companies and operators in the region in similar cases.
Chi, Y. (Landmark Halliburton, Houston, Texas, USA) | Kemajou, V. (Landmark Halliburton, Houston, Texas, USA) | Rajan, A. (Landmark Halliburton, Houston, Texas, USA) | Samuel, R. (Landmark Halliburton, Houston, Texas, USA)
Abstract Nowadays, the increasing drilling difficulties due to limited access to conventional reservoirs and high drilling costs put extra emphasis on drilling performance and safety. The advancement of real-time measurements and cloud computing make it possible to automate the monitoring, detection, and prediction processes, therefore trigger alarms before drilling issues even occur. In this paper, a scalable cloud-based real-time well engineering system was developed to monitor and forecast drilling operations by integrating multiple drilling model workflows such as torque and drag modeling, bit wear prediction, early kick loss prediction, hydraulics, swab and surge, anti-collision, stuck pipe avoidance. As demonstrated, this workflow can efficiently handle large and complex datasets in real-time and make real-time analysis and predictions. Moreover, this can be scaled up to support more users and wells. This cloud-based architecture makes it easier for the development team to apply hotfixes or major releases with no down time, and this new workflow makes it possible for drilling engineers to monitor live drilling wells anywhere and anytime while enabling the rig personnel to make significant improvement to operations and make timely and accurate decisions.
Abstract BP has had a presence in Oman since 2007 and stands as a major investor within the country. BP is one of the world's pioneers in tight gas production, harnessing technology and experience to develop one of the Middle East's largest unconventional gas resources in the Sultanate's Block 61. BP Oman's overall goal is to create a sustainable legacy that supports Oman's strategic goals for energy security and long-term economic diversification. Production from Phase 1 of Block 61, Khazzan, started in 2017 (Fig. 1). In October 2020, production from Phase 2, Ghazeer also started (Fig. 2). Combined, Khazzan and Ghazeer produce 1.5 billion cubic ft of gas/d and more than 65,000 bbl/d of associated condensate. With an estimated 10.5 trillion cubic ft of recoverable gas resources, the block has the capacity to deliver approximately 35% of Oman's total gas demand.