|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
The most important mechanical properties of casing and tubing are burst strength, collapse resistance and tensile strength. These properties are necessary to determine the strength of the pipe and to design a casing string. If casing is subjected to internal pressure higher than external, it is said that casing is exposed to burst pressure loading. Burst pressure loading conditions occur during well control operations, casing pressure integrity tests, pumping operations, and production operations. The MIYP of the pipe body is determined by the internal yield pressure formula found in API Bull. This equation, commonly known as the Barlow equation, calculates the internal pressure at which the tangential (or hoop) stress at the inner wall of the pipe reaches the yield strength (YS) of the material.
While many fluid mechanics applications can be done as hand calculations, more complex problems, especially involving temperature changes, require a hydraulic simulator. To address the wellbore operations of interest, a wellbore simulator should have a wide range of capabilities. Many applications for operational design involve highly transient behavior where temperatures are changing rapidly. Fully transient thermal response should be modeled in the flowing stream, the wellbore assembly, and the formation. Oil and gas well operations involve fluids of many different types.
Remedial cementing is undertaken to correct issues with the primary cement job of a well. Remedial cementing requires as much technical, engineering, and operational experience, as primary cementing but is often done when wellbore conditions are unknown or out of control, and when wasted rig time and escalating costs have the potential to force poor decisions and high risk. Good planning and risk assessment is the key to successful remedial cementing. Squeeze cementing is a "correction" process that is usually only necessary to correct a problem in the wellbore. Most squeeze applications are unnecessary because they result from poor primary-cement-job evaluations or job diagnostics.
Remedial cementing requires as much technical, engineering, and operational experience, as primary cementing but is often done when wellbore conditions are unknown or out of control, and when wasted rig time and escalating costs force poor decisions and high risk. Squeeze cementing is a "correction" process that is usually only necessary to correct a problem in the wellbore. Before using a squeeze application, a series of decisions must be made to determine (1) if a problem exists, (2) the magnitude of the problem, (3) if squeeze cementing will correct it, (4) the risk factors present, and (5) if economics will support it. Most squeeze applications are unnecessary because they result from poor primary-cement-job evaluations or job diagnostics. Squeeze cementing is a dehydration process.
The three primary functions of a drilling fluid depend on the flow of drilling fluids and the pressures associated with that flow. These functions includes: The transport of cuttings out of the wellbore, prevention of fluid influx, and the maintenance of wellbore stability. If the wellbore pressure exceeds the fracture pressure, fluids will be lost to the formation. If the wellbore pressure falls below the pore pressure, fluids will flow into the wellbore, perhaps causing a blowout. It is clear that accurate wellbore pressure prediction is necessary. To properly engineer a drilling fluid system, it is necessary to be able to predict pressures and flows of fluids in the wellbore.
Introduction The three primary functions of a drilling fluid--the transport of cuttings out of the wellbore, prevention of fluid influx, and the maintenance of wellbore stability--depend on the flow of drilling fluids and the pressures associated with that flow. For example, if the wellbore pressure exceeds the fracture pressure, fluids will be lost to the formation. If the wellbore pressure falls below the pore pressure, fluids will flow into the wellbore, perhaps causing a blowout. It is clear that accurate wellbore pressure prediction is necessary. To properly engineer a drilling fluid system, it is necessary to be able to predict pressures and flows of fluids in the wellbore. The purpose of this chapter is to describe in detail the calculations necessary to predict the flow performance of various drilling fluids for the variety of operations used in drilling and completing a well. Overview Drilling fluids range from relatively incompressible fluids, such as water and brines, to ...
During drilling operations, a pipe is considered stuck if it cannot be freed from the hole without damaging the pipe, and without exceeding the drilling rig's maximum allowed hook load. Pipe sticking can be classified under two categories: differential pressure pipe sticking and mechanical pipe sticking. Complications related to stuck pipe can account for nearly half of total well cost, making stuck pipe one of the most expensive problems that can occur during a drilling operation. Stuck pipe often is associated with well-control and lost-circulation events--the two other costly disruptions to drilling operations--and is a significant risk in high-angle and horizontal wells. Drilling through depleted zones, where the pressure in the annulus exceeds that in the formation, might cause the drillstring to be pulled against the wall and embedded in the filter cake deposited there (Figure 1).
The causes of mechanical pipe sticking are inadequate removal of drilled cuttings from the annulus; borehole instabilities, such as hole caving, sloughing, or collapse; plastic shale or salt sections squeezing (creeping); and key seating. Excessive drilled-cuttings accumulation in the annular space caused by improper cleaning of the hole can cause mechanical pipe sticking, particularly in directional-well drilling. The settling of a large amount of suspended cuttings to the bottom when the pump is shut down, or the downward sliding of a stationary-formed cuttings bed on the low side of a directional well can pack a bottomhole assembly (BHA), which causes pipe sticking. In directional-well drilling, a stationary cuttings bed may form on the low side of the borehole (see Figure 1). If this condition exists while tripping out, it is very likely that pipe sticking will occur.
During drilling operations, a pipe is considered stuck if it cannot be freed and pulled out of the hole without damaging the pipe and without exceeding the drilling rig ' s maximum allowed hook load. Differential pressure pipe sticking and mechanical pipe sticking are addressed in this section. If sticking does occur, common field practices for freeing the stuck pipe include mud-hydrostatic-pressure reduction in the annulus, oil spotting around the stuck portion of the drillstring, and washing over the stuck pipe. Some of the methods used to reduce the hydrostatic pressure in the annulus include reducing mud weight by dilution, reducing mud weight by gasifying with nitrogen, and placing a packer in the hole above the stuck point. Figure 1.2--Mechanical pipe sticking caused by drilled cuttings: (a) cuttings bed during drilling, and (b) cuttings jamming the drill bit during tripping out. Figure 1.3--Pipe sticking caused by wellbore instability.
All drilling challenges relate to the fundamental objective of maintaining a workable wellbore throughout the well-construction process. A workable wellbore can be drilled, logged, cased, cemented, and completed with minimal nonproductive time. The design of the drilling-fluid system is central to achieving this objective. With a poorly designed system there are some challenges that will occur. Most operational problems are interrelated, making them more difficult to resolve.