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This SPE Live focuses on stimulation practices used in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. The experts also discuss the potential proppant over-displacement in horizontal well fracturing in conventional tight reservoirs, the biggest challenges for speeding up stimulation of offshore wells, and recent activity in stimulation in the region. "What are your daily limits and limitations at home, at your workplace and on the way between?" With this leading question, Alison Isherwood (SPE London Section, Net Zero Committee) and Joschka Röth (SPE German Section, Gaia Regional Liaison for Europe) started their Gaia Workshop at the Novotel Budapest Danube Hotel in Budapest (Hungary) on 25th September 2021. The ultimate aim of the workshop: participants should be able to communicate confidently with everyone about sustainability and planetary limits.
McClean, Charlie Alexander (Baker Hughes) | Balgobin, Amrit Stefan (Baker Hughes) | Wilson, Steve Bryant (Baker Hughes) | Odairi, Ogagaoghene (Baker Hughes) | Higginbotham, Jeffrey Allan (Baker Hughes)
Abstract Sand production remains one of the major challenges in managing mature fields in Malaysia. Wells that experience severe sand production due to primary sand control failure require remedial solutions to continue producing without jeopardizing asset integrity. In these cases, operators rely heavily on through-tubing metallic sandscreen (TTSS), however, the applications remain limited due to the short TTSS lifespan, especially in wells in a high erosive environment. With increased intervention risk, frequent replacement is both economically and operationally unfeasible. Therefore, most high gas-oil ratio (HGOR) wells remain closed-in today, in need of a durable sand screen that can withstand high erosional velocity. Various types of erosion resistant through-tubing sand screens (ER-TTSS) have been implemented to test their sustainability and longevity in highly erosive environments. Additional challenges can be associated with the actual deployment of these remedial solutions into mature wells. This paper will discuss the performance of Malaysia's first installation of bonded bead sandscreen in HGOR well, Well #1 at offshore East Malaysia. Instead of using conventional mesh or wire wrapped type as filtration media, bonded bead sandscreen incorporates tightly bonded beads to filter sand and is expected to have superior performance over conventional metallic TTSS. Prior to installation, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation and sand retention test (SRT) were conducted to determine sand erosion risk and optimize the screen design for Well #1. The information gathered from the CFD was then utilized to optimize the tubular components and minimize the effect of erosion on the complete bottom hole assembly (BHA). Additionally, well #1 was on an unmanned production platform; therefore, the deployment options for this intervention had to be considered during the early planning phase of the operation. A combination of slickline unit with suitable pressure control equipment was selected to minimize personnel on board and match deck load limitations while ensuring proper service delivery. The outcome of pilot testing of bonded bead sandscreen in Well #1 will be discussed. Recommendations for future optimization will also be included to ensure that bonded bead sandscreen remains one of the competent through-tubing sand solutions, especially for HGOR wells. Furthermore, the operational techniques that were utilized to reduce the operational risk and costs will be discussed in order to demonstrate how such wells can be intervened in a cost-effective manner to extend the asset's life.
Ahmad Mohammed AlMatar, Mohammed (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Bahar, Zakaria (Kuwait Oil Company) | Mahmoud Bastaki, Fahad (Kuwait Oil Company) | BinOmar Chong, Mizan (Kuwait Oil Company) | Hamed Barki, Jassim (Kuwait Oil Company) | Jamal, Mariam (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Mehene, Mehanna (Kuwait Oil Company) | Slama, Mohamed Hedi (SLB) | Badrawy, Kareem (SLB) | Molero, Nestor (SLB) | Pochetnyy, Valentin (SLB) | Adel Sebaih, Mohannad (SLB)
Abstract Horizontal drilling technologies have evolved during last decades making possible wells with thousands of feet of long horizontal sections. These drilling advancements have contributed to drill more intricate multilaterals wells to ensure a thorough contact with the reservoir. In terms of well accessibility for rig-based well interventions, these complex completion configurations add significant challenges. Upon drilling is completed, coiled tubing (CT) matrix acid stimulation is one of the first interventions used to remediate the formation damage and bring the well back on production. Operator in Kuwait drilled a level four six-legged multilateral well in the north area to maximize reservoir contact within lower and upper Tuba carbonate formations. This drilling approach enables several production schemes and versatility in the pursuit of economical production. As such, this completion approach required an advanced intervention technique that relied on CT optical telemetry and multilateral entry tool (MLT). Real-time downhole readings included casing collar locator (CCL), gamma ray, CT internal pressure, annulus pressure, annulus temperature, and axial force for accurate depth control, rapid lateral identification, optimal MLT actuation and understanding of dynamic downhole conditions along the operation. The level-four multilateral candidate had a six 6 1/8-in. uncased horizontal sections that needed cleanout from drilling oil-based mud (OBM) and matrix stimulation using an emulsified retarded acid system (ERAS) for enhanced wormholing into the carbonate rock. The lateral sections exhibited an average of 2,500 ft and the reservoir featured a bottomhole temperature near 130°F and bottomhole pressure close to 2,100 psi. By combining real-time optical telemetry with MLT, the profiling of three laterals was completed in less than 4 hours for each one, optimizing the rig time and the course of the treatment. Prior to the matrix stimulation, three laterals were conditioned via CT through a multifunctional solvent consisting of a synergistic blend of aromatic solvent and surfactants intended to breakdown and disperse OBM residuals without the need of mechanical agitation and also leaving the rock water wet. The three laterals were then acidized in a single run by pumping 450 bbl of multifunctional solvent followed by 1,500 bbl of ERAS. When compared to conventional CT intervention in multilateral wells, this enhanced intervention approach optimized the total intervention time by 33%, being fundamental the ability to make fast-informed decisions from optical telemetry. This paper documents a value case study for CT rig-based intervention in Kuwait, where combination of an array of technologies, such as CT optical telemetry, MLT, multifunctional solvent and ERAS, enabled cleanup and acidizing three laterals from six-legged multilateral wells in a single run. The lessons learned are now the reference for other operators in the Middle East for performing interventions in multilateral wells.
Nobile Blanco, Juan Jose (Welltec Oilfield Services Doha LLC) | Prabhakaran, Sudesh (Welltec Oilfield Services Doha LLC) | Shiwan, Shiwanshu (Welltec Oilfield Services Doha LLC) | Rathod, Chirag (Welltec Oilfield Services Doha LLC) | Ting, David (Welltec Oilfield Services Doha LLC)
Abstract An offshore production well was out of operation after unsuccessful inflow tests. A remedial work plan was designed, but the execution resulted in severe damage to the top of the flowtube inside the Subsurface Safety Valve (SSSV), which was bent over and preventing production. Wireline conveyed mechanical intervention was performed with robotic tools to mill the obstruction and regain full bore access. Downhole hardware milling is a common technology; however, a thorough process must be followed in order to succeed. The following factors were among those to be considered: well configuration (completion schematic and restrictions); the material of the flowtube (9CR-1MO Martensitic Steel); the risk of damaging the surrounding area; the risk of rotating the whole assembly while milling; and the risk of getting stuck with the e-line Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA). The milling intervention program was drafted taking into consideration different scenarios including contingencies. E-line conveyed robotic milling intervention was the preferred option due to the urgency of the operation and high accuracy required to ensure the SSSV was left operational after milling. The robotic toolstring was first deployed for a drift run. Subsequent diagnostic runs were executed to help the team understand the downhole situation, adjust the operation plan and to test the performance of the tool downhole. Finally, the milling run was conducted showing a clear signature on the acquisition system, providing the parties involved with certainty regarding the outcome. A camera run was performed to verify the conditions of the operational area after milling. The job was executed in a total of four runs as per the program. Furthermore, the milling time itself was only 17 minutes. The complete removal of the damaged section of flowtube allowed the client to restore production immediately after testing the well integrity, with the SSSV fully functional. This paper describes the complex yet efficient operation where a robotic milling tool, conveyed by e-line, was able to remove a critical downhole obstruction and restore production while preserving all safety features of the well, thus preventing a complex workover operation. The in-depth preparation, followed by a methodical execution, allowed oil production to be resumed in this well.
Khan, Abdul Muqtadir (SLB) | AlTammar, Murtadha J. (Saudi Aramco) | Alruwaili, Khalid M. (Saudi Aramco) | Almutary, Talal O. (Saudi Aramco) | Ahmed, Danish (SLB) | Aidagulov, Gallyam (SLB) | Al-Dakheel, Hussain (SLB) | Abbad, Mustapha (SLB)
Abstract Breaking down the rock and initiating a fracture within pressure limitations is a major challenge in stimulating tight reservoirs with high tectonic stress components. Complexity increases with overbalanced mud damage and the stress cage created in the near-wellbore region during drilling. In certain formations, this results in 50% failed stages where proppant or acid were not placed. It is critical to investigate the first step in the process, which is the technique used to connect the wellbore with formation rock. This paper presents an in-depth comparison of three primary techniques—conventional perforating, abrasive jetting with Coiled Tubing (CT), and circular notching with CT—through laboratory experiments, field cases, and, most importantly, intervention. Fracturing pressure reduction by circular notches and discrete perforation holes was compared in hydraulic fracturing laboratory experiments. These tests were conducted in a polyaxial load frame on 24×18×18 in. cement blocks, where wellbore features were precisely casted. In field case analysis, the three techniques were evaluated by comparing the injectivity index changes in offset wells in the same formations. The required intervention methods with CT and variable bottomhole assembly configurations are detailed and aligned with challenges associated with different completion types. Hydraulic fracturing laboratory experiments were conducted at fixed confining stresses representing a general high breakdown pressure case of a horizontal openhole wellbore. The test series included the baseline case of nonintervened open hole parallel to the minimum stress, circular notch, and single and triple in-plane perforation holes. Notches and perforations were also tested in an azimuthally deviated horizontal well. Laboratory experiments confirmed the theoretically predicted superiority of notches over holes and demonstrated that notches can reduce fracture initiation pressure by up to 40%. For the field-scale evaluation, six comparison cases were built in similar reservoir and geologic conditions. A well injectivity index was calculated utilizing maximum pressures and rates achieved with different techniques. Injectivity enhancement showed up to 7X increase through abrasive jetting and circular notching over conventional perforating in casedhole and openhole wells, respectively, in wells that initially had injection. In some cases, these techniques enabled injectivity where initially there was no injection, hence yielding an infinite-scale enhancement. Finally, systematic intervention workflows were devised with different CT conveyance configurations and sequence for different completions such as abrasive jetting in cased hole, circular notching in open hole, and circular notching in open hole with packers and fracturing sleeves. The paper presents a unique integrated comparison of three primary wellbore-rock connection techniques that will allow better engineered workflows to enhance stimulation and operational efficiency. These improved workflows will help increase production from tight assets and lower completion costs and associated emissions by reducing interventions.