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Both the Rawlins and Schellhardt and Houpeurt analysis techniques are presented in terms of pseudopressures. Flow-after-flow tests, sometimes called gas backpressure or four-point tests, are conducted by producing the well at a series of different stabilized flow rates and measuring the stabilized BHFP at the sandface. Each different flow rate is established in succession either with or without a very short intermediate shut-in period. Conventional flow-after-flow tests often are conducted with a sequence of increasing flow rates; however, if stabilized flow rates are attained, the rate sequence does not affect the test. Fig 1 illustrates a flow-after-flow test.
Abstract Gas condensate reservoirs constitute a significant portion of global hydrocarbon reserves. In these reservoirs, liquids develop in the pore space once bottomhole pressure falls below dew point. This results in the formation of a liquid bank near the wellbore region which decreases gas mobility, which then reduces gas inflow. In such complex reservoirs, it is important to correctly describe PVT impacts, adjustments to well test analysis and inflow performance, and then combine all effects in the reservoir analysis. The literature contains many references to individual adjustments of PVT analysis, well testing, or inflow performance for gas condensate reservoirs, but few studies demonstrate the complete workflow for reservoir evaluation and production forecasting in gas condensate fields. This research uses a field case study to demonstrate an integrated workflow for forecasting well deliverability in a gas condensate field in North Africa. The workflow incorporates a description of the retrograde behavior that impact the well deliverability. The workflow begins with the interpretation of open-hole log data to identify the production interval net pay and to estimate petrophysical properties. A compositional model is developed and matched to actual reservoir fluids. Several gas condensate correlations are used to obtain the gas deviation factor and gas viscosity in order to count the change in gas properties with respect to pressure. Transient pressure analysis is described and used to identify reservoir properties. Inflow performance relationships (IPRs) are analyzed using three types of back pressure equations. The workflow integrates all data in a numerical simulation model, which includes the effect of bottom water drive. Results show that in this field case study, reservoir behavior is composite radial flow with three regions of infinite acting radial flow (IARF). Using compositional simulation, it is found that the fluid sample for this field is a lean gas condensate since the liquid drop-out represented 1% of the maximum liquid drop-out. In addition, liquid drop-out increases by 0.1% for every 340 psi drop in reservoir pressure, which reduces the AOF by 3.4%. The results provided in this case study demonstrate the importance of an integrated workflow in predicting future well performance in gas condensate fields. The study demonstrates how to implement the workflow in managing or developing these types of reservoirs.
This paper presents a review of the practical backpressure test analyses available for estimation of the stabilized absolute open flow (AOF) potential of natural gas wells. Linear regression analysis techniques have been used to correlate the field-recorded deliverability data and statistical influence tests have been used to identify possible out-liers in the test data.
The types of backpressure tests considered in this study are the conventional flow-after-flow (four point), single point, regular and modified isochronal backpressure tests, and the multiple modified isochronal test. The deliverability analyses considered in this paper are the Rawlins-Schellhardt pressure-squared, and the Houpeurt (quadratic) real gas pseudopressure and pressure-squared analyses. Modified versions of these analyses are used in the analysis of multiple modified isochronal tests.
The analysis techniques developed for multiple modified isochronal tests were reviewed and found to permit a rapid and adequate means of estimating the stabilized AOF potentials of slow-in-stabilizing wells in homogeneous reservoirs, using only the semilog transient isochronal deliverability data. Theoretical considerations are also introduced which may provide a means of estimating stabilized AOF potentials of gas wells completed in naturally fractured reservoirs. A discussion is also included on the estimation of stabilized AOF potentials of wells completed in homogeneous reservoirs, which have been vertically fractured to increase their productivity.
Deliverability testing of natural gas wells for the estimation of stabilized absolute open flow (AOF) potentials is generally performed using backpressure tests. A backpressure test is a drawdown flow test in which a well is produced at a series of flow rates and associated sandface pressures in order to establish the deliverability behavior of the well.
Varying definitions of stabilized AOF potential of a gas well can be found in the literature. While the lack of consistency in the definition of AOF potential generally does not significantly affect the values of stabilized AOF potential obtained, it does add confusion to a discussion about stabilized AOF potential determination. Since a natural gas well will not exhibit a flowing sandface pressure of less than atmospheric pressure for normal production operations, we shall use the definition of stabilized AOF potential as the theoretical stabilized rate at which the well would produce at a stabilized flowing sandface backpressure of atmospheric pressure. While this definition of stabilized AOF potential has the limitation of variable atmospheric pressure values, the limitation is negligible since in most areas, the standard atmospheric pressure is regarded to be about 14.7 psia.
Estimates of stabilized AOF potentials of gas wells have been used by the natural gas industry and regulatory agencies for several purposes, such as setting allowable production rates, pipeline and gathering system design, planning field development, and for the negotiation of sales contracts. The various types of backpressure tests and analyses available were reviewed to determine their applicability to the various types of reservoirs commonly found today.