Fatehgarh reservoirs in Aishwariya field, located in Barmer Basin of Rajasthan India, have very high CO2 content in reservoir fluid. A procedure was developed earlier to model the impact of reservoir CO2 on waterflood, polymer flood and ASP flood (
The objective of this work was to validate the modelling procedure developed to predict the produced gas rate in such a system with very high amount of CO2 in reservoir fluid.
A live oil coreflood experiment was carried out using 12 inches long Bentheimer core under Aishwariya reservoir pressure and temperature conditions. After saturating the core with live oil, the core was water flooded with brine for ~3.7 pore volumes. Produced gas volume was measured at different times so as to generate gas production profile.
Two different simulation techniques were used to simulate the experiment and match the gas production profile. First technique was using a compositional simulator with EOS based PVT while the other technique was using an "advanced processes simulator" modeling the component distributions based on partitioning coefficients. Both methods could successfully capture the production of gas from both liquid streams; oil and water and a reasonable match for the produced gas could be obtained.
The approach developed to simulate impact of CO2 on different aqueous based flooding processes in Aishwariya field was validated by matching the coreflood experiment carried out under actual Aishwariya reservoir conditions. It helped to confirm confidence in performance prediction of aqueous based flooding mechanisms planned in Aishwariya field despite the presence of significant amount of CO2.
The paper presents history match of unconventional produced gas profile of a coreflood carried out under Aishwariya field conditions with very high amount of dissolved CO2. The proposed method can be applied to estimate produced gas rate in other fields with very high amount of CO2 in reservoir fluid.
Capillary desaturation experiments are combined with high-resolution microtomography imaging to understand the impact of wettability on the global and local distribution of fluids in the pore space of sandstone outcrops. Small cylindrical rock samples are cored, imaged in dry state then successively prepared at irreducible water saturation before steps of waterflood. Several samples also go through a wettability-alteration phase in order to expand the range of wettability conditions: namely, oil-wet to mixed-wet. Waterflooding is done at various capillary numbers and injected brine volumes, depending on the case. The entire rock is imaged at voxel resolutions of typically 2 or 4 µm, to ensure a high-quality segmentation.
Global oil saturation results show how the wettability impacts the shape of capillary desaturation curves, in particular, the existence of a critical capillary number. In the nonwater-wet experiments, oil saturation is controlled by a large, highly-connected oil cluster percolating from the inlet to the outlet of the sample. Such results are important for pore-scale flow modeling strategy and validation. We demonstrate that the wettability is not always uniformly distributed along the core despite of the use of classical wettability-alteration protocols, highlighting potential biases in traditional SCAL tests.
An accurate description of the microemulsion-phase behavior is critical for many industrial applications, including surfactant flooding in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Recent phase-behavior models have assumed constant-shaped micelles, typically spherical, using netaverage curvature (NAC), which is not consistent with scattering and microscopy experiments that suggest changes in shapes of the continuous and discontinuous domains. On the basis of the strong evidence of varying micellar shape, principal micellar curves were used recently to model interfacial tensions (IFTs). Huh’s scaling equation (Huh 1979) also was coupled to this IFT model to generate phase-behavior estimates, but without accounting for the micellar shape.
In this paper, we present a novel microemulsion-phase-behavior equation of state (EoS) that accounts for changing micellar curvatures under the assumption of a general-prolate spheroidal geometry, instead of through Huh’s equation. This new EoS improves phase-behavior-modeling capabilities and eliminates the use of NAC in favor of a more-physical definition of characteristic length. Our new EoS can be used to fit and predict microemulsion-phase behavior irrespective of IFT-data availability. For the cases considered, the new EoS agrees well with experimental data for scans in both salinity and composition. The model also predicts phase-behavior data for a wide range of temperature and pressure, and it is validated against dynamic scattering experiments to show the physical significance of the approach.
The standard model for relating bulk formation resistivity to porosity and water saturation was introduced to the petroleum industry in 1941; it remains the industry standard to this day. The model was discovered empirically by means of graphical analysis. Basically, G.E. Archie discovered that when the logarithm of formation resistivity factor was plotted against the logarithm of porosity the resulting trend could be fitted by a straight line. A similar relationship was discovered connecting the logarithms of resistivity index and water saturation. When these two power laws are combined into a single equation, it can be solved for water saturation (which is not observable from a borehole) in terms of bulk formation resistivity, interstitial brine resistivity, and porosity (all of which can be estimated from observations made in boreholes). This revolutionized log interpretation. There has always been a problem with the model in terms of its “explainability”. That is, it cannot be derived in any straightforward way from accepted first principles of physics. It does not contradict any first principle, but neither does it seem to follow ineluctably from them. However, since the model works, most formation evaluators have memorized the relationships that follow from the model and simply “get used to them”. That remains the situation to this day. However, there is a path around this obstacle to understanding formation resistivity at a fundamental level, and that way forward is to abandon the resistivity formulation in favor of its reciprocal, conductivity. It is surprising that such a seemingly trivial change could open a new vista into the relationships among formation electrical properties. A conductivity formulation permits the asking of questions about how a formation’s conductivity should respond to changes not only in brine conductivity, but also in the fractional amount of brine in a formation, and its geometrical configuration. By answering these questions in an obvious way, and with some analysis of data taken in the laboratory, an intuitively obvious model explaining bulk formation conductivity emerges. The model is not the same as the Archie model. However, when certain parameters are taken to their limiting values, and the model is converted into resistivity space, Archie’s power law model is revealed as an approximation to the limiting cases. Thus, from the conductivity formulation, an intuitive understanding of the Archie model emerges. Moreover, the conductivity model can be derived in at least three different ways, each yielding different insights into formation conductivity.
Magzymov, Daulet (John and Willie Leone Family Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University) | Purswani, Prakash (John and Willie Leone Family Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University) | Karpyn, Zuleima T. (John and Willie Leone Family Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University) | Johns, Russell T. (John and Willie Leone Family Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University)
The objective of this paper is to model low-salinity waterflooding by honoring physico-chemical complexity, namely, the effects of reaction kinetics and dispersion. Recent literature provides evidence for the potential of low-salinity water injection to improve oil recovery through wettability alteration through a complex network of reactions. However, there is lack of consensus with respect to the exact chemical species that are responsible for the alteration process. Therefore, in this study, we develop a a simplified binary multiphase reactive transport model that honors the general surface reaction for wettability alteration, but at the same time includes effects of reaction kinetics and dispersion in the governing equations.
We lump the reactants, such as sodium, calcium, and petroleum acids, into two characteristic components based on their contribution to oil or water wetness. The wettability alteration process is modelled as a competition between these primary characteristic components to occupy the rock surface as described by reaction kinetics.
The simulation results show a significant impact of reaction kinetics on the rate of wettability alteration compared to assuming instantaneous equilibrium. In the limiting case of a very slow reaction rate (Da ~ 0), low-salinity injection does not alter the wettability. Particularly, no effect on ultimate oil recovery is observed, regardless of the injected salinity level. For the case of an instantaneous reaction the ultimate oil recovery is sensitive to the injected fluid salinity. Moreover, during fast reactions (Da ~ 10-4), the wettability alteration front moves slower than the injected fluid front caused by excess salt in the solution that desorbs from the rock surface. The delay in wettability alteration is crucial to consider for an appropriate slug size design of low-salinity injection. Lastly, we observe that dispersion does not affect the ultimate oil recovery during wettability alteration as compared to reaction kinetics.
Zhong, Xun (Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of North Dakota) | Pu, Hui (Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of North Dakota) | Zhou, Yanxia (Department of Chemistry, University of North Dakota) | Zhao, Julia Xiaojun (College of Petroleum Engineering, Northeast Petroleum University)
Surfactant EOR received attraction due to its extreme capability to increase displacement efficiency by altering the wettability, lowering the oil/water interfacial tension and ultimately mobilizing the residual oil. However, surfactant systems are widely acknowledged to have large adsorption on rock/clay/sediment solid surfaces, which may result in concentration loss, thus impair the effectiveness of the chemical solution and turn the process into an economically unfeasible case. Surfactant adsorption can be affected by the adsorbents, surfactant structure, experimental temperature and some other factors. Also, the driving force for adsorption varies with different surfactants types. Generally speaking, electrostatic interaction is more prominent for those anionic surfactants, while hydrophobic interaction is more common for nonionic type.
In this paper, the static adsorption behaviors of two surfactants (A1 and N1) on Bakken minerals and Berea sandstone in high salinity and high temperature Bakken conditions (salinity≈290,000 mg/L, temperature=80~105 °C) were studied using spectrometric iodine method, where 0.1 mM I2-0.2 mM KI solution was used as a color developing agent. The primary stability indicated that both surfactants have high compatibility with the Bakken formation brine at high temperature, and their critical micelle concentrations showed a small decrease in the presence of high saline brine. Bakken mineral is relatively complicate, which is composed of quartz, dolomite, calcite and clay, while Berea sandstone contains over 75 wt% quartz. Herein, the effects of surfactant concentration, surfactant type, temperature, adsorbents and salinity on adsorption density were covered, and the impacts of surfactant concentration and adsorbents were found to be more significant. Due to the higher specific surface area and high clay content of Bakken minerals, both anionic surfactant blend A1 and nonionic surfactant blend N1 have pretty high adsorption on Bakken minerals, and the specific adsorption densities of 1000 mg/L surfactant solution were calculated to be 1.74 mg/m2 and 1.69 mg/m2, respectively. Meanwhile, the results also indicated that though the applied surfactant concentration is relatively low, the concentration loss due to adsorption should never be overlooked. Future study on how to effectively reduce the adsorption of surfactant especially in those clay-rich formations is of great significance.
Acid stimulation in sandstone reservoirs containing significant amount of clays can end up with undesired results due to unexpected reactions between stimulation fluids and formation clays. This paper demonstrates how heavily damaged clay-rich sandstone reservoir completed with cased hole gravel pack (CHGP) in offshore Myanmar can be successfully established for commercial production with organic clay acid stimulation treatment. The formation is laminated dirty sand with very high clay content (up to 30%) and large gross height (>100m MD). Production logging results showed only a small portion of perforated intervals contributing to production. Thus, an appropriate stimulation treatment is required to unlock well potential and prevent screen failures from concentrated flow through a small interval.
Given high clay content as well as presence of acid sensitive clays, conventional treatments using HCl as preflush and hydrofluoric (HF) acids as main fluids would result in potential damages from secondary and tertiary reactions. Furthermore, undissolved clays in the critical matrix left over from the treatment would potentially migrate and plug the pore throat. The new acid system was designed to generate small amount of HF in-situ (~0.1%) at any given time with total strength of 1% HF, which would greatly minimize second and tertiary reactions and also permits acids travel deeper into the formation. Furthermore, the reaction products would react with the clays and physically "welding" the undissolved clays to the surface of the pore spaces permanently and prevent them from migration.
The treatment was designed in three stages: 1) screen and gravel pack cleanup using coiled tubing (CT) jetting; 2) injectivity test; 3) main treatment consisting of acetic acids as preflush, and new acid system as main fluids followed by overflush. A newly designed linear gel containing relative permeability modifier was used for diversions. Two underperforming CHGP wells were treated, and both wells yielded 100% increase in productivity with no fine production observed at the surface.
The success of the campaign owes to the sophisticated engineering workflow which starts from diagnostic of the damage zone and root-cause of the formation damage, followed by detailed analysis of various skin components using radial numerical reservoir modeling for all the reservoir layers that led to a proper treatment strategy and fluid design based on the damage and formation mineralogy as well as comprehensive laboratory tests. This has helped to minimize the risk of the treatment and eventually unlocked the production from the heavily damaged sandstone reservoir.
Produced water composition analysis provides evidence of what geochemical reactions are taking place in the reservoir. This information can be useful for predicting and managing oilfield mineral scale resulting from brine supersaturation.
This paper presents results of a study of the produced brine compositions from three wells in a field operated in the North Sea, with geochemical modelling complementing the analysis. The findings presented in this work provide evidence of magnesium depletion and sulphate retardation in a sandstone reservoir at 130° C.
This adjusted formation water composition was then used for calculations of the injection water fraction in each of the produced water samples. The Reacting Ions Toolkit was used to plot data in a variety of formats, including ion concentration vs. ion concentration, ion concentration vs. injection water fraction and ion concentration vs. time to identify trends and to examine the extent of involvement of the various ions in geochemical reactions.
The breakthrough of sulphate, a component primarily introduced during seawater flooding, was retarded during injection water breakthrough. Observed sulphate concentrations were lower than predicted for the case of brine/brine interactions only. The implication of this sulphate reduction was lower minimum inhibitor concentration required to control scale formation and longer squeeze treatment lifetimes for the operator.
A brine/rock interaction mechanism was proposed that involves magnesium depletion and is reproduced in the reactive transport model. 1D reactive transport modelling was performed to match possible
Paul, Ferm (Nouryon) | Jeff, Germer (Nouryon) | Kurt, Heidemann (Nouryon) | Stuart, Holt (Nouryon) | Andrew, Robertson (Nouryon) | Jannifer, Sanders (Nouryon) | Klin, Rodrigues (Nouryon) | John, Thomaides (Nouryon) | Nick, Wolf (Nouryon) | Lei, Zhang (Nouryon)
The controlled release of scale inhibitors (SI) and other treatment chemicals in the near-wellbore region is a key strategy to improving water management and extended well production. In addition, during some completion and stimulation operations, it is desired that robust particles providing controlled release be placed in gravel and sand packs. A novel controlled release scale inhibitor particle is presented which provides beneficial properties due to its unique chemistry and polymer processing methods. This technology provides extended feedback of scale inhibitor with tunable release rates.
Rodgers, Patrick (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Lundy, Brian (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Ramachandran, Sunder (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Ott, James (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Poelker, David (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Lee, Dong (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Stevens, Corey (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Bounds, Christopher (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Sullivan, Matthew (Baker Hughes, a GE Company)
Operators producing hydrocarbons from conventional and unconventional wells often encounter interconnected production-related challenges that exacerbate one another. Challenges during production include the corrosion of steel caused by acid gases, as well as the precipitation and accumulation of iron sulfide, calcium carbonate scale, and barium sulfate scale. The accumulation of solids on pipe walls can facilitate under-deposit corrosion and plugging. Each of these issues can lead to failures and costly workovers. To address these issues, current treatment approaches require multiple chemical applications, frequent batch treatments, mechanical intervention, or a combination of approaches. In certain scenarios, these approaches can be impractical, ineffective, and/or uneconomical. The objective of this study was to develop a solution to overcome the aforementioned production challenges simultaneously and continuously with a single chemical application. The design strategy was to formulate chemicals that included a variety of chemistries to inhibit multiple corrosion mechanisms, as well as an iron sulfide dissolver, and a scale inhibitor to inhibit the formation of calcium carbonate and barium sulfate scales. Laboratory tests were conducted to demonstrate that the formulations could function in the aforementioned areas. One formulation was then applied in the field under different production scenarios: oil wells equipped with either a gas lift mechanism or an electrical submersible pump. Data from those situations are presented to demonstrate the field performance of the new formulation. Compared to the benchmark chemical treatment efforts, application of the formulation improved or maintained similar corrosion control, reduced or eliminated the accumulation of iron sulfide solids in the well, and improved scale control in each of the production scenarios. This paper presents a viable option for effectively treating common production challenges simultaneously and with one chemical application, which is particularly useful when it is impractical or uneconomical to employ multiple chemical treatments.