Reservoir management is a data driven process with an objective to achieve an optimum ultimate oil recovery. It is fundamental to obtain a proper understanding of well and reservoir performance, which can only be built based on the acquired data. Data acquisition in brownfield has been a significant challenge due to the obsolete control system, accessibility and workflows. Daily well changes is one of the key pieces of data required in routine allocation, well performance analysis, as well as simulation model updates and hence development plans. There are two major types of acquired data in the presented giant offshore brownfield, which are manually measured by operators and automatically recorded data through available SCADA system. A comprehensive data analysis has been conducted based on historical production data and reservoir surveillance data to spot the gaps and identify the opportunities for future improvement.
Gaps in daily well changes data have been observed from both manually and automatically acquired data. It has been summarized into two main categories, which are data inaccurate and data missing. The inaccuracies are mainly from improper use of well change event types, inaccurate timing of data acquisition and malfunctioning of SCADA systems. Missing data includes loss of manual measurement records and insufficient utilization of SCADA data. The paper presents real examples of all these findings and a proposed workflow to enhance the data acquisition process. The concise and explicit workflow is one of the most efficient approach to tackle the hardware and manpower limitations. The importance of daily production events could not be over emphasized. Specific actions to bridge the identified gaps are crucial to achieve a sound reservoir management, maintain the sustainability, and ensure an optimum oil recovery.
This paper presents a novel approach for oilfield digitalization from an operator perspective in view of big data and industry 4.0 topics. The objective is to organize a smart technology change to state-of-the-art conditions in mature brownfields under the circumstances of a low oil prize scenario, minor hydrocarbon production rates, high water cuts and the availability of a certain percentage of a well’s turnover for digitalization and monitoring purpose, as demand from the company’s management.
The core of the smart brownfield concept is the formation of a team of multidisciplinary professionals, working on projects outside the day-to-day business, with the aim of introducing and developing state-of-the-art technology solutions in order to optimize production in mature brownfields. The project team consists of three main pillars to cover organizational, commercial and technical key aspects. The relinquishment of internal IT services, as well as a focus on individual skills of each team member are primarily responsible for the successful implementation of the defined objectives.
Combining more than 80 years of operational experience in brownfield development with new state-of-the-art technology approaches, forms the basis for effective oilfield digitalization. The multidisciplinary project team conducts the elaboration of a holistic approach covering all relevant operational disciplines, under the aspects of production improvement, cost savings and health and safety compliance. Data generation is established by using purpose built devices, and by equipping wells with commercially available sensors. Data transmission is accomplished with a new approach in terms of LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Network). Field operator are equipped with smart watches for data communication purpose during on-site field inspection. An internal developed software platform using the advantage of machine learning and smart computational approaches forms the base system for innovative analysis of automatically transferred field data. The project team programs integrated software applications for smart data visualization based on long-term expert knowledge in field operations. The so created oilfield digitalization concept serves as platform for field development and decision-making purpose for engineering and management level.
A big advantage of the created concept is, that the workflow can be applied to any oilfields and facilities around the globe for different well types (SRP, PCP, ESP) and customized according to required settings. The novel concept forms a holistic approach in a retrofit design, to combine the old analog and the modern digital world for a smart digitalization of brownfields in the E&P business.
Reservoir management is a data driven process with an objective to achieve an optimum ultimate oil recovery. It is fundamental to obtain a proper understanding of well and reservoir performance, which can only be built based on acquired data. Data acquisition in brownfield has been a significant obstacle hindering the decision making process. Comprehensive utilization of available data becomes more critical.
This paper presents an analytical approach of evaluating well performance based on an exploration of the conventional lift curve method. Lift curve is basically a correlation between oil production rate and wellhead flowing pressure, which is generated based on flow testing results. In addition to the conventional way of observing a single well's performance, the analytical approach integrates all the wells’ historical and current lift curves as well as GOR and water cut performance. The analysis is performed in two dimensions. The first one is the well historical performance evolvement. And the second one is the offset wells’ performance comparison. The data driven analytical approach has been improving the understanding of well performance and efficiency of reservoir management based on an automated analytical model. The analysis has revealed a pattern of well performance changes, which could be utilized to alert the non-preferable changes. These changes could be avoided or delayed by taking proactive actions. For instance, wells with potential gas encroachment risks have been observed before GOR performance has enough evidence to raise the alert. Actions has been proposed and taken to mitigate the reservoir issue, which has been confirmed by further flow tests. The nearby wells’ cross comparison has shown great value in both reservoir analysis and field development. Improvement of horizontal wells has been evaluated to address the necessity of horizontalization in certain areas. Well intervention candidates could be identified. The observations and findings will affect the future completion strategies. Uncertainty in flow testing results is always a governing challenge in reservoir management process. The reliability of reservoir analysis is strongly dependent on the accuracy of reservoir surveillance data. The proposed approach can also further validate the input data through cross-checking with offset wells’ performance.
Onojeta, Kennedy Mudiaga (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Karuppusamy, Kandasamy K. (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Agrawal, Rajender Kumar (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Kamal, Faris Ragheb (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Takieddine, Ousama Halim (National Petroleum Construction Company)
The O&G industry is continuously seeking cost reduction strategies that result in competitive advantage among their competitors especially during periods of fluctuating oil price. This has led to the engagement in Brownfield projects as a cost saving measure which arguably involves less capital to execute when compared to Greenfield projects with high cost of execution. Hence, Operators and EPC Contractors tend to focus on cost efficient and sustainable approaches that will maintain the profit margin and gain competitive advantage. This strategy places the companies in a better shape such that after the price fluctuation periods, they will be more prepared to face new challenges in developing new fields that will improve their bottom lines and be leaner in their operations.
The focus of this paper is on the strategies applied in executing Brownfield works for many offshore platforms in Arabian Gulf by National Petroleum Construction Company (NPCC). The case study demonstrates the installation of over 3500 tonnes of deck extensions onto existing platforms using a simplified design approach, standardized seafastening arrangements that requires less offshore work, minimal interface and operations shutdown of live equipment.
Fields in the Upper Assam-Arakan Basin have been studied intensely to find prospective sweet spots, perforation intervals for new wells, and potential workover candidates. These forecasts, guided only by dynamic-numerical-model results, have had mixed results when implemented in the field. In this paper, an integrated work flow is proposed for brownfields where oil production is driven mainly by water injection. Produced-water salinity plays a key role, acting as a natural tracer and, thus, helping avoid additional costs for new data acquisition. Is Industry Ready for Brownfields’ Prime Time?
In need of an exploration boost, Norway doled out a record 83 production licenses in mature areas of the Norwegian Continental Shelf to 33 firms. Mature brownfields contribute significantly to global oil production. A study of the papers presented during the past year at various SPE conferences reveals continuation of the trend to put in massive effort to minimize decline from mature brownfields. Well RXY is located in Cairn’s Ravva offshore field in the Krishna-Godavari Basin in India. One goal for the field was significant crude production by means of a secondary reservoir section.
Tan, Yeen Voon (Dialog Energy Sdn. Bhd.) | Amiruddin, Nurul Azrin (Dialog Energy Sdn. Bhd.) | Li, Hui Ming (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Sim, Chee Hui (Dialog Energy Sdn. Bhd.) | Abdul Aziz, Shahrizal (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Adnan, Nursyazwani (Dialog Energy Sdn. Bhd.) | Mansor, Mohd Najmi (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Anuar, Mohd Azlan (Dialog Energy Sdn. Bhd.) | Jacobs, Stephen Thomas (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Khalid, Aizuddin (Dialog Energy Sdn. Bhd.) | Kumar, Ashok (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum)
This paper discusses an alternative study approach with multiple lessons learned from a recent successful infill drilling campaign in a medium-sized brownfield. The team conducted a practical and an optimized subsurface study, including the no-frills classical reservoir engineering and a simple sector model to justify the infill wells. From idea generation to monetization of the barrels, it was fast and cost effective without compromising technical assurance. Results of the infill drilling campaign and lessons learned are discussed in this paper. This is a case study on how a comprehensive understanding of reservoir complexity using creative data integration can be an adequate tool for field development. The results of the campaign demonstrated that an optimized study helps the operator and partners make an efficient investment decision in materializing development opportunities.
The petroleum industry faces a range of complicated challenges, the main are resources depletion and its' difficulty to access, which lead to oil and gas projects investment risks growth and force us to look for new methods to increase efficiency. One of keys to the solution is development of integrated field management, when hydrocarbons extraction is considered as a single chain; from geology through development, production and construction to economic optimization. Implementation of the digital integrated field management is in its initial stage. What effect do we expect from integrated management? When do we need to use it and when we do not?
In their outlook for 2019, SPE’s technical directors suggest petroleum engineers take a moment to reflect on the industry’s great feats, and then get back to work to do things better. A contest where teams of college students design and build an automated drilling rig able to deal with hazardous obstacles in a test block, showed how a small change can be engineered to matter. How Close Is Too Close? The ideal well spacing is in the eye of the beholder. The decision depends on so many factors that machine learning is now trying to determine the best combination of ingredients.
Mature brownfields contribute significantly to global oil production. A study of the papers presented during the past year at various SPE conferences reveals a continuation of the trend to put in massive effort to minimize decline from mature brownfields. This has been attempted through several means, such as improving well integrity and judicious well interventions to restart production from idle wells. One paper discusses a conceptual platform where all stakeholders (operator and service providers) can share and formulate a win/win strategy wherein operational efficiency and success rate of an activity are the main drives. As an offshoot of such well-intervention activities, low-resistivity pay zones, either shallower or deeper with respect to the main pay and hitherto considered unattractive, have been identified and contribute significantly in sustaining production decline.