There are different definitions of what is Well Integrity. The most widely accepted definition is given by NORSOK D-010: "Application of technical, operational and organizational solutions to reduce risk of uncontrolled release of formation fluids throughout the life cycle of a well." Other accepted definition is given by ISO TS 16530-2 "Containment and the prevention of the escape of fluids (i.e. Well Integrity is a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, well integrity engineers need to interact constantly with different disciplines to assess the status of well barriers and well barrier envelopes at all times.
CO2 sequestration, also known as CO2 capture and storage (CCS), uses a range of technologies and approaches that isolate, extract, and store carbon dioxide emissions from industrial and energy-related sources in order to prevent the release of it into the atmosphere. Carbon capture and storage technology involves the process of trapping and separating the CO2, transporting it to a storage location, and then storing it long-term so that it does not enter into the atmosphere. It is not a new technology and has been used by petroleum, chemical, and power industries for decades. In fact, carbon capture was first used in Texas in 1972 as a method to enhance oil recovery. CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels has been on the incline since the industrial era; and with more than 85% of the world's energy coming from fossil fuels, it will remain an important energy source well into the future. As the demand for fossil fuels is growing, so is the volume of CO2 emitted each year.
While most types of logs are used to characterize the wellbore, formation, and fluids prior to well completion, a number of logging tools are available to provide information during production operations and beyond. This article discusses the various types of production logs and how they can often be used together to provide crucial information for understanding and resolving problems.. Production Logging is one of a number of cased hole services that includes cement monitoring, corrosion monitoring, monitoring of formation fluid contacts (and saturations), perforating and plug and packer setting. Services performed in dead, overbalanced, conditions can use relatively simple surface pressure control equipment and are often performed using large open hole style logging cables. Wells with surface pressure typically have a completion tubing of relatively small internal diameter, ID, compared to the casing size across the reservoir. This reduced ID means that cased hole toolstrings for live wells are typically sized at 1-11/16" in order to pass through the smallest nipple in a 2-3/8" tubing.
Estimating resource and reserves crosses the disciplines between geoscientists and petroleum engineers. While the geoscientist may well have primary responsibility, the engineer must carry the resource and reserve models forward for planning and economics. Volumetric estimates of reserves are among the most common examples of Monte Carlo simulation. Consider the following typical volumetric formula to calculate the gas in place, G, in standard cubic feet. In this formula, there is one component that identifies the prospect, A, while the other factors essentially modify this component.
A production engineer is responsible for generating the production forecast for a well or for a field. Where does the engineer start? Darcy's law gives an estimate of the initial production. Once production drops from the peak or plateau rate, the engineer needs an estimate of decline rate. One can quickly realize that, with all these uncertainties, production forecasts are another candidate on which to use risk analysis techniques to help quantify the uncertainty.
One of the most exciting developments in the last decade has been expandable tubulars because they offer the potential for a "monoborehole" and drilling to depths no longer limited by initial hole diameter. As a result, the focus on tubulars has concentrated on expandable casing. A key development is the concept of the monodiameter borehole (Figure 1). Production casing can be run inside the expanded form of casing with the same diameter with this concept. It will allow, for the first time, casing to be set at will or as needed without a penalty in completed depth.
Computer-controlled drilling is slowly changing how the oil and gas industry discovers natural resources. Automated drilling can reduce the number of injuries to zero and increase productivity and accuracy. Global oil prices and a surplus of gas have caused an improvement in the economics of automated projects. Meanwhile, in North America, human-operated drilling has greatly improved. According to a 2011 issue of Drilling Contractor, the first generation of Shell's automated control system already showed a 70% improvement in rate of penetration (ROP) in test areas.
Intelligent wells are downhole flow control devices, sensors, power and communication systems, and associated completion equipment. This equipment is used to optimize production, improve recovery, and manage well integrity. Developing an intelligent-completion solution requires the clear definition of well and/or project objectives. Initially flow control devices were based on conventional wireline-operated sliding-sleeve. These valves were reconfigured to be operated by hydraulic, electrical, and/or electrohydraulic control systems to provide on/off and variable position choking.
Since the inception of the technology in the late 1990s, the use of intelligent well technology has focused on production acceleration, increased ultimate recovery, reduced operating expenditure (opex) and reduced project level capital expenditure (capex). The following examples illustrate applications in which this technology has been deployed. Using optimization, the strong lateral is restricted and more chance is giving for the weak one. This cannot be obtained without a downhole valve and surface control in addition to modeling. Objective Achieve production increase based on DTS analysis.