An oil field located about 80km west of the African coast at the water depth of 818m had reached its end of economic life. The facilities and wells would need to be Decommissioned and Abandoned (D&A). The Floating Production Storage & Offloading (FPSO), which was the key component of the facilities, would need to undergo the Disconnection and Demobilization (D&D) phase. The objective of this campaign was to restore the field back to its safe condition whilst minimising the environmental impact, complying with local and international legislative and at the same time delivering the Abandonment & Decommissioning (A&D) in line with good industry decommissioning practices at the most optimize cost. Upon completion of the D&D, the FPSO would require to return to her original base in the South East Asia (SEA).
This paper discusses a case study for a D&D campaign and activities of the FPSO which includes the Subsea, Umbilical, Riser and Flowline (SURF) and mooring system. One of the crucial areas during the execution phase was pertinent to the management and disposal of the hazardous waste that is subjected to transboundary movement as per the relevant convention. Amongst the hazardous waste were Natural Radioactive Occurrence Material (NORM), low specific activity (LSA) material, hydrocarbon sludge and contaminated water. It is necessary for the FPSO to be free from the above said hazardous waste for her to be accepted by the receiving base country.
This paper also describes the actual experiences and lessons learnt which can be applied in future projects.
This paper will focus on solutions and strategies for conserving weight and space, reducing emissions, and leveraging data to optimize the performance of rotating equipment on floating, production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) vessels. It will discuss design considerations for gas turbines in offshore applications (i.e., dry-low emissions technology, use of lightweight components, etc.) The paper will also outline a holistic digital lifecycle approach to FPSO topsides, which can help reduce capital and operating expenses, shorten project development cycles, and decrease offshore manpower requirements. For illustrative purposes, the paper will discuss specific power and compression solutions that were implemented on various offshore projects in 2017 - 2018, ranging from Offshore Brazil to the Bering Sea. The paper will outline how the equipment configurations helped operators meet horsepower requirements and emissions targets, as well as CAPEX and OPEX objectives. Additionally, it will discuss how digital transformation can be leveraged to optimize FPSO lifecycle performance, delivering benefits such as 4-12 week reduction in project cycle times, $7 million reduction in CAPEX, and $60 - $100 million reduction in OPEX over a 10-year period.
Progress in the digital area has been quite significant in the past few years in terms of data monitoring, remote collaborative work, telecommunications and robotics to the point that disruptive ways to operate and to design surface installations can now be envisioned with HSE benefits and substantial cost reductions without compromising production efficiency. Normally Unattended Installations with presence of people on site only once a year (NUI-1Y) for maintenance campaigns is the ultimate aim of unmanned concepts and a new frontier for cost reduction. This approach is particularly relevant for remote production sites where operations usually require a continuous presence of a large crew and heavy logistical means. Although, this concept seems very challenging, it is in fact a natural extension of what has been applied with success on subsea developments starting over twenty years ago where wells, valves, separators, pumps and now compressors have been remotely operated from a host facility, together with the occasional assistance of Remote Operated Vehicles. A NUI-1Y development, in its philosophy, is very similar to a subsea architecture that would be applied to a surface installation.
Bumi Armada Berhad's wholly owned subsidiary Bumi Aramada Offshore Holdings was awarded a contract worth about USD 1.18 billion--together with joint venturer Armada Gema Nusantara--to supply and operate a floating production, storage, and offloading vessel for Husky-CNOOC Madura Limited. The vessel will be used at the Madura BD field, approximately 10 miles south of Madura Island, offshore Indonesia. The contract has a firm charter period of 10 years with options for five annual extensions. Operations are expected to start in the fourth quarter of 2016.
KANFA Group, a subsidiary of Sevan Marine, has been awarded an EPC contract for four process modules on the FPSO Yinson Production. The contract is expected to have a duration of 15 months and is valued at approximately USD 50 million. The FPSO will be deployed at the recently sanctioned Offshore Cape Three Points block, located in the Tana basin, 60 km offshore Ghana.
Ezra Holdings' subsea service division, EMAS AMC, recently won multiple contracts from unnamed energy companies totaling approximately USD 65 million. The scope of work covers project management, engineering, and transportation and installation works for a floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) vessel in Africa, as well as various engineering and offshore construction support. Work on the projects has begun, with offshore execution planned for this year and next year.
Caterpillar launched the Cat offshore power generation module, a turnkey scalable, single lift, modular power plant product. The unit offers full integration into a floating, production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) vessel or a fixed production platform's structural design. It was designed specifically to meet the needs of FPSO and fixed production platform's main power applications in cases where a gas turbine was not ideal. Available from 4 MW to 17.3 MW per module, the unit runs on liquid, diesel, crude, and heavy fuel oil or gas. It also runs in dual fuel mode and meets current and future emission regulations to maximize flexibility and reduce operating costs.
Production and drilling activities in offshore installation are one of the most necessary activities of human society. To drill a subsea well and raise the crude oil to a platform, by itself, presents a series of risks. Associated with this activity, when the crude oil reaches the topside of the platform, there are a number of operations that prepare the oil and gas to be exported to land by pipelines or oil tanker vessels, which involves equipment and process that take high temperatures, high pressure and high flow rates. Understanding the dynamics of the factors that can affect the interaction of operators with all these offshore complex systems is critical, because the loss of control of these systems can cause serious accidents, resulting in injuries to workers, environmental damage, loss of production and geopolitical crises. Accidents in the oil and gas offshore installations, such as drilling rigs and FPSOs, can have tragic consequences and all efforts should be targeted to prevent its recurrence. Therefore, from the perspective of current technological developments, it is essential to consider the influence of Human Factors in the risk management of offshore industrial plants.
The objective of this paper is to explore the benefits of using the Interactive Epoch-Era Analysis (IEEA) methodology for evaluating architectural changes in a trade space exploration study. In this paper a subsea tieback offshore Brazil will be used as reference case to investigate this premise from a full field development perspective.
An automated concept exploration tool is employed. It applies meta-heuristics to generate different offshore facilities concepts with varying building blocks. The interaction between reservoir behavior and facilities design is accounted for, meaning pressure and temperature losses throughout the system are taken into account in each concept differently. These concepts are ranked in terms of economic performance indicators (NPV, IRR, etc.), and each run with a given set of boundary conditions covers what is called an Epoch. This process is iterated for the whole life of field with a set of different boundary conditions, such as commercial aspects ($/bbl, $/MMBtu, market demand) and/or technological maturity aspects (TRL, novel technological concepts), generating what is called an Era. The whole data set is then evaluated in an interactive platform thru the Humans-In-the-Loop (HIL) process.
Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is being employed successfully in other engineering fields outside the O&G context such as the aerospace and automotive industries. While digital tools have been identified as a potential key contributor to the future of O&G performance enhancement and further cost reductions, that is yet to be shown. This work intends to provide backing for that argument in one of the potential applications during early concept exploration phases by showing that quick high value assessments following an MBSE approach may be carried out, once significant effort has been put into proper development, verification and validation (V&V) of such digital tools.
While integrated models for asset development have long been a subject of interest for O&G operators, the application of Systems Engineering concepts to it has not yet been thoroughly explored. Systems Engineering provides a rigorous and proven method of dealing with complex systems that is highly applicable to offshore field developments. MBSE is the current State of the Art for capital intensive projects such as space exploration spacecrafts and rovers. Learning from these successful use cases and applying these methodologies in the development of digital technologies may provide a new set of tools in the belt of O&G operators Facilities Engineers and alike. The study case presented shows MBSE’s capability of capturing intrinsic non-linearities and specificities of each O&G field/location while ensuring project wide functional requirements are successfully met.