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One role of the petrophysicist is to characterize the fluids encountered in the reservoir. Detection of a change in fluid type in the rocks while drilling is usually straightforward with the use of gas and chromatographic measurements. Gas shows and oil shows while drilling are time-honored indicators of zones that need further investigation through logs, testers, and cores. In the rare case of gas-bearing, high-permeability rock drilled with high overbalance, gas will be flushed from the rock ahead of the bit, will not be circulated to the surface in the mud, and will not produce a gas show. Because hydrocarbons are not always part of a water-based-mud formulation, sophisticated analytical chemical techniques can be used on the oil and gas samples circulated to the surface and captured to determine the properties of hydrocarbons in a given zone penetrated by the drill bit.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) has released an energy and carbon tracker, an interactive product that showcases a wide set of indicators to analyze historical trends of CO2 emissions, energy, power, and sectoral patterns at country level. Published in Excel format, it includes graphs of time series and analyses that allow for comparison by country. The data are derived from the 2020 editions of the IEA World energy balances, CO2 emissions from fuel combustion, and energy efficiency indicators databases. The tracker includes annual data from 1990 to 2019 for selected indicators for all OECD countries, the IEA family, and other selected countries; and up to 2018 for the global set of indicators for over 160 countries and regions. Graphs and data are included for the following parameters.
Waterdrive (or water drive) petroleum reservoirs are characteristically bounded by and in communication with aquifers. As pressure decreases during pressure depletion, the compressed waters within the aquifers expand and overflow into the petroleum reservoir. The invading water helps drive the oil to the producing wells, leading to improved oil recoveries. Like gas reinjection and gas cap expansion, water influx also acts to mitigate the pressure decline. The degree to which water influx improves oil recovery depends on the size of the adjoining aquifer, the degree of communication between the aquifer and petroleum reservoir, and ultimately the amount of water that encroaches into the reservoir.
Imagine if you could have seen North America's shale gas phenomenon coming, years ahead of the competition. What would you have done differently? Some companies might have avoided spending billions of dollars on liquefied natural gas import facilities in the United States. Some might have acquired acreage before hyperinflation escalated land values. Others would have reallocated capital to better position their companies for the onslaught of natural gas and natural gas liquids.
Editor's Note: The oil and gas industry is under public scrutiny like never before on a host of health, safety, and environmental issues. These concerns are already affecting how companies operate and interact with the public. This series is intended to shed light on how the industry is actively confronting these challenges and how it should address them going forward. Ten years ago, on 20 April 2010, the oil and gas industry suffered a significant human and environmental catastrophe, and a major blow to its reputation. The Deepwater Horizon semisubmersible drilling rig was preparing to temporarily abandon the Macondo well in 5,000 ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) when the well blew and ignited causing a massive explosion that killed 11 people.
Cybersecurity is often thought of as an IT matter, since it involves the protection of network infrastructure, programs, and the data stored within them, but would companies benefit from rethinking its role in their operations? A global intelligence advisor at BP recently argued that the consequences of cyberattacks make them general business issues more than IT issues, and the intelligence gathered in developing cybersecurity protocols can act as a business driver. At a workshop co-hosted by Siemens and the International Society of Automation on the role of artificial intelligence in combatting cyberattacks, Sean Plankey said intelligence is a prevention function, and a well-executed intelligence-gathering operation should help inform proper security protocols. Adversaries often deploy a series of capabilities to move across external and internal infrastructure, so detecting an individual event within a network does not always give a company the greatest understanding of the nature of the threats they may face. "I think that a good way to look at intelligence is defining what our adversaries are trying to do against us," Plankey said.
Between 2009 and 2016, the Society of Petroleum Engineers facilitated a series of global sessions to develop ideas for the continued improvement of health, safety, and environment (HSE) in the industry. The diverse group of participants generated many valuable ideas for improved performance. The resulting technical report, "Getting to Zero and Beyond: The Path Forward," sets the stage for continuing the discussion across the industry of the essential steps the industry must take to sustain zero harm. For more than 2 decades, the oil and gas industry has set HSE goals that are focused on reducing incidents with the ultimate intended outcome that no one is hurt and no releases occur. The concept of zero harm, therefore, is not new to the industry. What has been a challenge for decades, however, is aligning on an effective pathway to achieve these goals.
To assist oil and gas companies with reporting on nonfinancial performance, the Oil & Gas Industry Guidance on Voluntary Sustainability Reporting was published in 2005 as a framework for improving the quality and consistency of voluntary sustainability reporting. The guidance was revised in 2010 and again in 2015. This paper discusses the value of sustainability reporting, the motivation behind the most recent update, and the changes made and provides an overview of social performance indicators in the third edition. Oil and gas companies were among the earliest businesses to adopt sustainability reporting and, since it gained traction in the mid-1990s, have provided some leading examples of reporting practices. Improved internal operations, recruitment, and morale as employees develop a clear understanding of the company's sustainability imperatives and as the more systematic management of data, knowledge, and insight helps improve operational performance and decision-making--all serving to attract and retain employees and helping to secure long-term competitive advantage Enhanced trust, credibility, and license to operate as customers, suppliers, and the wider society understand the company's brand, operations, and products Through communication on sustainability issues, a company's report becomes a reliable source of information for its stakeholders. By transparently describing its biggest challenges, reporting underpins stakeholder engagement and represents the company's values in action.
This paper presents an analysis of the environmental aspects of the exploitation of unconventional reservoirs in order to evaluate the risk of the activity. To this end, the existing normative framework, the natural and socioeconomic conditions of the area, and the applicable technologies are considered. The novelty of this work is the analysis of the factors that determine the environmental risk including technologies, environmental conditions at the site, and the legal context in the region. A review and comparative analysis was performed of the general and environmental regulatory framework in Argentina where unconventional exploration or exploitation activities are carried out. This analysis was completed with a review of the effluent-management strategy, comparing it with criteria used by other countries, especially the United States.
From June 2014 to January 2015, global crude oil prices dropped by almost 60%, from about USD 108/bbl to USD 46/bbl. There were many factors that drove these prices downward. Being an integral part of the industry, it is important that young professionals understand the governing principles and be able to connect them with facts. The following are some of the prominent factors responsible for the drastic change in oil prices. According to the December 2014 monthly update of the United States Energy Information Administration, the global supply of liquid fuels increased by 1.8 million B/D to 92 million B/D in 2014 while demand did not keep pace.