Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. Gas as it is produced from the reservoir. Raw gas may contain methane, heavier hydrocarbons and other nonhydrocarbon gasses such as CO2, H2S, nitrogen or helium.
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. In the context of reactions, wet gloss heating value is the total energy transferred as heat in an ideal combustion reaction of a water saturated gas at a standard temperature and pressure in which all water formed appears as a liquid.
A relief system is an emergency system for discharging gas during abnormal conditions, by manual or controlled means or by an automatic pressure relief valve from a pressurized vessel or piping system, to the atmosphere to relieve pressures in excess of the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP). A scrubbing vessel should be provided for liquid separation if liquid hydrocarbons are anticipated. The relief-system outlet may be either vented or flared. If designed properly, vent or flare emergency-relief systems from pressure vessels may be combined. Some facilities include systems for depressuring pressure vessels in the event of an emergency shutdown.
Converting gas to liquids (GTL) through the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) route to monetize stranded gas has received increasing attention over the past few years. FT technology is a process that rearranges carbon and hydrogen molecules in a manner that produces a liquid, heavier hydrocarbon molecule. In general, GTL through the FT route refers to technology for the conversion of natural gas to liquid; however, GTL is a generic term applicable to any hydrocarbon feedstock. This page focuses on GTL processes based on natural gas feedstock. FT chemistry originated during the early 1920s from the pioneering work of Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch at the Kaiser Wilhelm Inst.
Liquified natural gas (LNG) is the liquid form of natural gas at cryogenic temperature of 265 F ( 160 C). When natural gas is turned into LNG, its volume shrinks by a factor of approximately 600. This reduction in volume enables the gas to be transported economically over long distances. Over the past 30 years, a considerable world trade in LNG has developed. Today, LNG represents a significant component of the energy consumption of many countries and has been profitable to both the exporting host countries and their energy company partners.
A hydrostatic test is a way in which pressure vessels such as pipelines, plumbing, gas cylinders, boilers and fuel tanks can be tested for strength and leaks. Hydrotesting of pipes and/or pipelines are performed to expose defective materials that have missed previous detection, ensure that any remaining defects are insignificant enough to allow operation at design pressures, expose possible leaks and serve as a final validation of the integrity of the constructed system. Buried high pressure oil and gas pipelines are tested for strength by pressurizing them to at least 125% of their maximum operating pressure (MAOP) at any point along their length. Since many long distance transmission pipelines are designed to have a steel hoop stress of 80% of specified minimum yield (SMYS) at MAOP, this means that the steel is stressed to SMYS and above during the testing, and test sections must be selected to ensure that excessive plastic deformation does not occur. Leak testing is performed by matching changes in the measured pressure in the test section against the theoretical pressure changes calculated from changes in the measured temperature of the test section.