Pipeline pigs are devices that are placed inside the pipe and traverse the pipeline. Pigs may be used in hydrostatic testing and pipeline drying, internal cleaning, internal coating, liquid management, batching, and inspection. Figure 1 shows several types of pipeline pigs. The pig is inserted ahead of the fill point, and water is pumped behind the pig to keep the pipe full of water and force air out ahead of the pig. Pigs are then used to remove the test waters and to dry the pipeline.
The pipeline system that conveys the individual-well production or that of a group of wells from a central facility to a central system or terminal location is a gathering pipeline. Generally, the gathering pipeline system is a series of pipelines that flow from the well production facilities in a producing field to a gathering "trunk" pipeline. Gathering systems typically require small-diameter pipe that runs over relatively short distances. The branch lateral lines commonly are 2 to 8 in. Gathering systems should be designed to minimize pressure drop without having to use large-diameter pipe or require mechanical pressure-elevation equipment (pumps for liquid and compressors for gas) to move the fluid volume. For natural-gas gathering lines, the Weymouth equation can be used to size the pipe. "Cross-country" transmission pipelines will collect the product from many "supply" sources and "deliver" to one or more end users. Transmission pipelines will generally require much larger pipe than gathering systems. Transmission systems normally are designed for long distances and will require pressure-boosting equipment along the route. Many factors must be considered when designing, building, and operating a pipeline system. Once the basic pipe ID is determined using the applicable flow formula, the other significant design parameters must be addressed. For U.S. applications, gathering, transmission and distribution pipelines are governed by regulations and laws that are nationally administered by the U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT).
Flowmeters are used to measure liquid/gas products. Turbine flowmeters are an effective means of accurate measurement of liquid/gas products in many industries. Because of the turbine meter's versatility and flexibility in product metering applications, it is one of the most widely used technologies in flow measurement. Turbine meters were invented in the 18th century by Reinhard Woltman, and at that time were used for water-flow measurement. In the 1950s, turbine meters were first used for hydrocarbon measurement for aeronautical applications within aircraft.
Liquified natural gas (LNG) is the liquid form of natural gas at cryogenic temperature of 265 F ( 160 C). When natural gas is turned into LNG, its volume shrinks by a factor of approximately 600. This reduction in volume enables the gas to be transported economically over long distances. Over the past 30 years, a considerable world trade in LNG has developed. Today, LNG represents a significant component of the energy consumption of many countries and has been profitable to both the exporting host countries and their energy company partners.
The safe transportation of hydrocarbons and other fluids within pipelines is a top priority within the oil and gas industry. Companies are subject to several federal regulations, standards, and monitoring from agencies such as The National Energy Board Onshore Pipeline Regulations (OPR); under the National Energy Board Act, The U.S. Department of Transportation – PHMSA, and The Transportation Safety Board (TSB).The safe transportation of hydrocarbons and other fluids within pipelines is a top priority within the oil and gas industry. Companies are subject to several federal regulations, standards, and monitoring from agencies such as The National Energy Board Onshore Pipeline Regulations (OPR) under the National Energy Board Act, The U.S. Department of Transportation – PHMSA, and The Transportation Safety Board (TSB). Designing and building onshore and subsea pipeline transportation projects that are safe, sustainable, and ecofriendly have been an ongoing mission of the industry. Each project must address the following basics with any pipeline project including engineering, procurement, construction, feasibility, permitting, program management, and the pipelines lifecycle To meet the pipeline industry's goal of incident-free operation, pipeline operators invest considerable human and financial resources to protect the people, property and environments near pipelines.