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Song, Pengfei (CNOOC Gas & Power Group) | Wang, Rui (CNOOC Gas & Power Group) | Sui, Yiyan (CNOOC Gas & Power Group) | Shan, Tongwen (CNOOC Gas & Power Group) | Hou, Jianguo (CNOOC Gas & Power Group) | Wang, Xiulin (CNOOC Gas & Power Group)
Abstract Because of its convenience, high efficiency and low cost, small-scale skid-mounted hydrogen generator has become a hydrogen-production object of intense research efforts worldwide and has broad prospects in application. We analyze the technical points and difficulties in detail of this kind of on-site compact hydrogen generators from natural gas, by each section in the production process. It is suitable for integrated hydrogen refueling stations due to easy transportation and installation. Related applications are introduced by comparing the technical parameters of recent typical products in the world. Meanwhile, we calculate that the full life cycle cost of hydrogen from skid-mounted hydrogen generator from natrual gas can achieve less than 40CNY / kgH2, which is more economic than other possible hydrogen sources and transportation modes of a hydrogen refueling station. Although the advantages mentioned above, we point out that technology innovation is still desirable, especially in the process of reforming, automatic control, system integration and catalysis, to realize the minimization of skid-mounted hydrogen generators base on natural gas, for its further and wider application in the future.
BP and partners have sanctioned the Azeri Central East (ACE) project, the next stage of development of the giant Azeri-Chirag-Deepwater Gunashli (ACG) oilfield complex in the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea. The $6-billion development includes a new offshore platform and facilities designed to process up to 100,000 BOPD. The project is expected to achieve first production in 2023 and produce up to 300 million bbl over its lifetime. The extension of the ACG production sharing agreement (PSA) to 2049 was agreed in 2017 and this is the first major investment decision by the partnership since then. More than $36 billion has been invested into the development of the ACG area since the original PSA was signed in 1994.
But serious personal injuries are growing, while feedback on the working environment, the HSE climate and perceived risk is moving in the wrong direction. "The results show a positive trend for the major accident risk indicator, with fewer incidents and a reduced potential," said Anne Myhrvold, director-general of the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (PSA), which produced the study. "On the other hand, we now see an increase in the number of serious personal injuries on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS). Employees also have a more negative view than before of several conditions related to managing health, safety, and the environment (HSE) and to the working environment. "The industry must ensure that the good progress made in reducing the major accident risk continues.
The Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (PSA) is closely monitoring industry action over the current pandemic. So far, it has found that, while the pandemic is attracting great attention, there are no signs of safety being weakened. Regular contacts over the coronavirus outbreak are being maintained with companies and other parties in the industry, said Ingvill Hagesæther Foss, one of the PSA's directors of supervision. "Despite the demanding circumstances, safety requirements remain unchanged," she said. "Responsibility for conducting operations offshore and at the land plants prudently and in line with the regulatory requirements rests with the companies. The coronavirus doesn't alter that. The players must always have emergency preparedness in place and plans so that they are able to deal with various incidents or conditions which could affect safety."
The Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (PSA) has pursued a number of activities in recent years related to digital technology and information and communications technology (ICT) security. These have included auditing control systems; knowledge development in such areas as artificial intelligence; remote support; and digital working, and dialogue with various partners in the industry. Digital technology and ICT security have also been incorporated as a subject for followup in the Safety Forum. Ambitious Plans The industry is characterized by a rapid pace of change. Work assignments, processes, and organization are altering as a consequence of digitalization and new technology.
A report from Norway's auditor general criticizes several aspects of the way health, safety, and the environment (HSE) in the Norwegian oil and gas industry is followed up by the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (PSA). Also presenting proposals for improving and strengthening the PSA's role, the report is generally supportive of today's petroleum safety regime. Published on 15 January, the Auditor General's detailed report provides good descriptions of the current arrangements. However, it identifies a need for the PSA to be stronger and clearer and for greater emphasis to be placed on company responsibility. The report specifies a series of improvement points relating to both the PSA and the companies.
The Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (PSA) is worried about a rising number of serious incidents in the industry and has asked the companies to prioritize work on safety. "The sum of the strong and weak signals we're now seeing makes us uneasy," said director general Anne Myhrvold. A disquieting rise in serious incidents reported to the PSA has been registered in 2020. "This trend is a source of concern," Myhrvold said. Although reported incidents this year have yet to be quality-assured for final classification of their seriousness, she emphasises that the picture has now become sufficiently clear to justify sounding a warning--and sending an unambiguous signal to the companies.
Zhao, Haining (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Jing, Hongbin (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Fang, Zhengbao (Xinjiang Oilfield Company, PetroChina) | Yu, Hongwei (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina)
Summary On the basis of a previously published reduced‐variables method, we demonstrate that using these reduced variables can substantially accelerate the conventional successive‐substitution iterations in solving two‐phase flash (TPF) problems. By applying the general dominant eigenvalue method (GDEM) to the successive‐substitution iterations in terms of the reduced variables, we obtained a highly efficient solution for the TPF problem. We refer to this solution as Reduced‐GDEM. The Reduced‐GDEM algorithm is then extensively compared with more than 10 linear‐acceleration and Newton‐Raphson (NR)‐type algorithms. The initial equilibrium ratio for flash calculation is generated from reliable phase‐stability analysis (PSA). We propose a series of indicators to interpret the PSA results. Two new insights were obtained from the speed comparison among various algorithms and the PSA. First, the speed and robustness of the Reduced‐GDEM algorithm are of the same level as that of the reduced‐variables NR flash algorithm, which has previously been proved to be the fastest flash algorithm. Second, two‐side phase‐stability‐analysis results indicate that the conventional successive‐substitution phase‐stability algorithm is time consuming (but robust) at pressures and temperatures near the stability‐test limit locus in the single‐phase region and near the spinodal in the two‐phase region.