Saikia, Partha Protim (Oil India Limited) | Dutta, Udai Anand (Oil India Limited) | Tumung, Ranjiti (Oil India Limited) | Verma, Sanjay (Oil India Limited) | Ahmed, Akhtar Uddin (Oil India Limited) | Mukerjee, Aditya (S.K.Oilfield)
Radial jet drilling is a widely used environment friendly technique to improve well productivity in tight reservoirs, accelerate production in low-to-medium permeability wells, revamp production in mature wells with formation damage. This technique has helped to enhance production from mature field by bypassing skin, extend the connectivity of the wellbore beyond the near well bore area by drilling laterals using high pressure water jet, and thereby alleviate production restrictions caused by near well bore damage and extend the reach of the wellbore far into the formation. Production, being dependent on reservoir contact of the well bore is therefore increased as average reservoir contact is enhanced by the drain holes. However, selection is equally important as all wells cannot be considered as a suitable candidate and unsuitable candidate selection can show detrimental outcomes.
The technology was applied in a sandstone reservoir where a 22 mm hole was created in the casing at the target depth and then 50 mm OD lateral of length 100m was drilled in the reservoir using high pressure hydraulic jet. The accurate placement and orientation of downhole tool plays a significant role in the success of this technology and is found to be always challenging. Preventing casing milling in undesired azimuths, eliminating chances of lateral overlapping are some challenges that essential to be addressed for gaining optimum advantages. One of the promising technologies to address these challenges was the application of Surface Recording Gyro System. The application of surface recording gyroscopic well bore navigation system provides accurate placement of tool for lateral exit in the down hole and thus enable creation of lateral in the desired direction.
This paper discusses candidate selection and execution carried out in 7 nos. of wells in OIL INDIA LIMITED utilizing surface read out gyro system, which was done for the
As stimulations and well preparation in complicated wells are capital intensive, it was critical to identify the most-suitable candidates with the available dataset before attempting well preparation and further acquisition. This was addressed through a customized workflow to design and creation of the horizontal laterals in desired azimuth utilizing the surface readout gyro system along with radial jet drilling for maximizing oil recovery.
Ueda, Kenji (INPEX Corporation) | Ono, Kenya (INPEX Corporation) | Fuse, Kei (INPEX Corporation) | Nonoue, Ayako (INPEX Corporation) | Furui, Kenji (Waseda University) | Mustapha, Hussein (Schlumberger) | Tsusaka, Kimikazu (INPEX Corporation) | Furuta, Kohei (INPEX Corporation) | Rodriguez-Herrera, Adrian (Schlumberger) | Makimura, Dai (Schlumberger) | Manai, Taoufik (Schlumberger) | Ito, Toru (INPEX Corporation)
The legacy of conventional fields has resulted in many low permeability reservoirs deemed sub-commercial without an appropriate stimulation strategy. With low permeabilities and potentially heterogeneous reservoir characteristics, an optimal development approach would highly depend on their specific reservoir properties that may well require stimulation methods other than hydraulic fracturing. In this paper, we present a fully integrated characterization and modeling workflow applied to the Kita-Akita oil field in northern Japan, demonstrating the screening process for multiple completion and stimulation methods in a highly heterogeneous, low permeability sandstone reservoir.
To select a best completion and stimulation candidate from multiple methods, we constructed an evaluation matrix including the maturity of technologies, applicability to our reservoir, productivity, and economics. Multi-branch type completions such as radial drilling and fishbone drilling, as well as hydraulic fracturing were simulated and subsequently compared based on their productivities. Especially for the radial drilling and the fishbone drilling, a 3D FEM model was built for their complex laterals, and the inflow performances were evaluated with homogenous reservoir properties, respectively. Besides, due to the highly heterogeneous nature of the reservoir, we built a full-physics subsurface model based on a pilot-hole data acquisition and legacy 2D seismic lines. The 3D model served as a canvas to assess reservoir flow and geomechanical behavior, calibrated with production history from past producing wells in the 1950's to 1970's. Based on these models, the best infill drilling location was selected and multiple well completion and stimulation practices were evaluated.
Through the screening methodology, the multi-stage hydraulic fracturing was identified as the best suited from an instantaneous productivity perspective. Yet, even though hydraulic fracturing would enhance the accessibility into multiple distinctively isolated sandstones occurring in the deepwater slope channel setting, the treatment costs exceeded the economic threshold significantly in our case. Inflow performance evaluation based on the 3D FEM modeling illustrates multi-branch type completions such as radial drilling and fishbone drilling were identified with a good stimulation skin factor. As a result of 3D simulation study, multi-branch completion was revealed as a technical and economically viable stimulation option in the heterogeneously distributed sandstone reservoirs.
The advent of recent completion and stimulation techniques now renders low permeability reservoirs with relatively large development potential. Even with the development challenges quite different from conventional reservoirs, the approach shown in this paper provides a helpful reference for the study and decision-making process when the legacy field needs an optimal stimulation strategy.
Al-Jasmi, Ahmad Kh. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Alsabee, Ali (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Awad, Ahmad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Attia, Adel (Kuwait Oil Company) | Elsayed, Abdou (Kuwait Oil Company) | El-Mougy, Ahmed (Petrosas Oil Services and Radial Drilling Services)
Reservoir management requires continual efforts to identify opportunities for production enhancement. Radial Drilling (RD) technology is a method for production optimization by extending the contact area with reservoir. It utilizes hydraulic jetting energy to create several lateral holes within the zones of interest along different directions.
A candidate cased hole well-A was selected based on sub-normal production from a sandstone reservoir. Three extended laterals holes, at ±300 ft lengths each, are made using the RD technology. Job planning includes core studies, static and rotary jetting test using clean fluid. In order to avoid any possible formation damage during operations, RD job procedures have been optimized by using the different fluids mixtures during jetting, backwash and enlarging the created lateral holes. Jetting fluid used was brine mixed with NH4CL and Mutual Solvent, and followed by 10% HCL regular Acid.
The results showed a significant improvement in well productivity compared with previous well history. The post-treatment production test showed a ±110% gain in oil rate resulting from the improved reservoir deliverability. The dominant factor responsible for the success of this technology is the meticulous planning and testing before job execution. Moreover, it has proven to be an effective solution to bypass the deep damaged area around the sandface, and to improve the production recovery from heavy oil zones. The success of the new Radial Drilling technology with the optimized procedures can be implemented as a best practice in similar wells in north Kuwait fields.
This paper presents the advantages of the Radial Drilling technology in the recovery of bypassed crude oil from existing thin reservoirs, the optimized radial drilling procedures that ensured a clean lateral hole, and the evaluation of the impact compared to the conventional procedures.
Maut, Partha Protim (Oil India Limited) | Jain, Deepak (Oil India Limited) | Mohan, Rahul (Oil India Limited) | Talukdar, Dhruba (Oil India Limited) | Baruah, Tridip (Oil India Limited) | Sharma, Pritam (Oil India Limited) | Verma, Sanjay (Oil India Limited)
Decline of production or premature shut-in of wells due to various problems like reservoir pressure depletion, adverse reservoir characteristics, formation damage (skin) etc. is an increasing problem in the oil and gas production sector. In most of such cases, the remaining resources are likely to be abandoned in view of failure to re-establish the production of the field. Oil India Limited (OIL) has attached a significant thrust on improving recovery from such reservoirs by use of some modern fit-for-purpose technologies. Based on the result of pilot radial jet drilling project, a second campaign has been completed successfully in OIL.
The paper represents the operational involvements for the successful completion of the radial jet drilling operations in four (4) nos. of wells (3 oil well & 1 gas well) in four (4) different mature reservoirs of Oil India Limited. The depth of the target reservoirs varied from 2866 m to a record depth of around 3319 m (deepest well in India where radial jet drilling has been implemented). The first well was completed with 4 laterals (length 100 m each) with 90° phasing. The second well had 6 laterals (length 50 m-100 m) with 90° phasing in two different reservoir depths. The third well was completed with 5 laterals (length 10 m- 100 m) while the fourth well was successfully completed with 4 laterals of length 100 m each at targeted reservoir depth.
In this paper, the detailed post radial jet drilling production performance of the wells have been discussed and covered. The post job production gain of nearly 800% was obtained.
This is the second time; this technique was applied to increase production in the mature fields of OIL, Assam. The technical experience and knowledge gathered from the radial jet drilling campaign certainly confirms that radial jet drilling is a viable alternative to improve or unlock an untapped potential for incremental production for shallow to deep (approx. 3400 m) reservoirs conditions in Oil India Limited as well as in other exploration and production (E&P) operators worldwide.
Radial drilling (RD) technique utilizes hydraulic energy to create several lateral holes in different directions and levels with several lengths. These lateral holes are made by milling the casing with small bit then extending these holes laterally using high pressure hydraulic jetting. Successful case histories of radial drilling technique in some part of the world were discussed. The candidate recognition for proper well selection which is the key for successful application of this technology was carefully examined. Some Niger Delta reservoir geological and mechanical parameters were collected and thoroughly screened to identify the possibility of increasing the well potentials of mature/brown fields using radial drilling technique. In this paper emphasis has been given to study the process of radial drilling technology, its advantages, overcoming its limitation, its usage in the recovery of left out crude oil from existing reservoirs especially those from brown fields.
Jain, Deepak (Oil India Limited) | Maut, Pratha Protim (Oil India Limited) | Saharia, Pranjal (Oil India Limited) | Dutta, Ranjit (Radial Drilling Services Inc) | Yomdo, Saloma (S K Oil Field.) | Hatchell, Ian | Mukherjee, Aditya
Radial jet drilling was applied recently on an experimental basis in Oil India Limited (OIL) to retrieve production from some locked up potential in reservoirs with low permeability and near well bore formation damage, through enhanced exposure, with an ultimate objective of maximizing the total long-term hydrocarbon recovery from the reservoirs. Radial drilling is a Frac-Less well stimulation technique used worldwide by Exploration and Production (E&P) companies to enhance production from depleted/damaged reservoirs. This well intervention technique involves milling of a 22 mm hole in the production casing of the mother well and then creating holes of approximately 50 mm OD with a maximum length of 100 m in the reservoir by removal of material from the formation using high hydraulic jetting pressure. Radial drilling is a proven technique to bypass the damage near wellbore zones. The Paper depicts the successful completion of radial drilling operations in Four (4) nos. of pilot wells (3 oil well & 1 gas well) in four (4) different reservoirs of Oil India Limited, a post job production analysis and technical learning's from the Project. The depth of the target zones varied from 2407 m to a record depth of around 3226 m (deepest well in India where Radial Drilling has been implemented). The first pilot well was completed with 3 laterals (length 29.5 m-100 m) with 90
Radial jet drilling, RJD is an unconventional drilling technique that uses the jet energy of high velocity fluids to drill laterals with different geometries in both conventional and unconventional reservoirs. Many case studies are available worldwide have proven RJD as a viable alternative to traditional stimulation techniques, especially in marginal fields. RJD has a lot of application in the oil and gas industry. It is a cost effective completion technique to reach the untapped sweet spots, by-pass damaged zones near wellbore, re-complete old wells, etc.
The present paper outlines the basics of newly developed radial jet drilling technology. Advances in technologies, developments, forces imposed, jet fluid hydraulics, procedures, applications, and challenges of RJD are reviewed in this paper. Simulation studies and several worldwide case studies are discussed to evaluate the RJD technology.
The pdf file of this paper is in Russian.
This article focuses on experience of radial drilling and acidizing technologies in similar geological and hydrodynamic conditions. Main advantages of radial drilling are shown in analysis of oil production rate and productivity index. In paper oil production after treatments for the same period of well operation is compared. Выполнен сравнительный анализ технологической эффективности радиального бурения и матричной кислотной обработки в схожих геолого-гидродинамических условиях. Расчет проведен по двум ключевым параметрам: общему приросту дебита нефти; приросту дебита нефти за счет изменения коэффициента продуктивности, приведенному к забойному давлению до проведения геолого-технических мероприятий (ГТМ). Для исключения влияния фактора прироста обводненности скважины после ГТМ выполнен прогноз показателей эксплуатации скважины с применением характеристик вытеснения, по результатам которого пересчитаны приросты дебита нефти. Оценена дополнительная добыча нефти без учета прироста обводненности после ГТМ за одинаковый базовый период работы скважины.
Lu, Yunhu (China University of Petroleum(Beijing)) | Li, Ning (Tarim Oilfield PetroChina) | Zhou, Xiaohong (Tarim Oilfield PetroChina) | Wang, Xiaoliang (Tarim Oilfield PetroChina) | Zhang, Feng (Tarim Oilfield PetroChina) | Yang, Pei (Tarim Oilfield PetroChina) | Yang, Chengxin (Tarim Oilfield PetroChina) | Zhou, Bo (Tarim Oilfield PetroChina) | Jin, Yan (China University of Petroleum(Beijing)) | Zhang, Tao (Tarim Oilfield PetroChina) | Li, Jiaxue (Tarim Oilfield PetroChina) | Teng, Xueqing (Tarim Oilfield PetroChina)
Upward trends in oil prices and the proliferation of new technology enable operators to capitalize on new opportunities. This trend is not limited to previously undeveloped fields or by lithology. Operators are also able to gain higher recovery from old fields where production has declined over time, making new opportunities for matching technology to economies of scale for such marginal projects.
This paper outlines the recompletion of a portion of a 40 year old field using radial jet drilling, RJD. The reservoir in K-block, Tarim oilfield of China is a siltstone formation with low permeability and was damaged by the mud. The combination of low permeability, low productivity from traditional vertical completions in a thin net pay, and lack of low cost techniques to improve well productivity caused the production to dwindle.
In2012, the operator implemented a program of radial jet drilling and acid/nitrogen fracturing to enhance field production. Radial jet drilling is a low-cost, environmentally-friendly method to drill numerous small diameter horizontal laterals from a vertical or near-vertical wellbore. It works in both new and old wells that already have a production history.
The present paper outlines the completion and production history of the field, summarizes the workover effort and the production data before and after the workovers. The results show that nearly a 90% production increase was obtained. It can be clearly seen that radial jet drilling can be a viable alternative to improve productivity of shallow reservoirs that still have significant oil in place that can’t be produced with the existing conventional completions.
With growing global energy demand and depleting reserves, oil well stimulation has become more important. In all of these reservoirs, formation damage is a headache problem which needs to be treated. One of the proposed techniques is to bypass the damaged zone. Radial drilling can provide a solution with lowest costs than the others.
Radial drilling technique utilizes hydraulic energy to create several lateral holes in different directions and levels with several lengths. These lateral holes are made by milling the casing with small bit then by extending these holes laterally using high pressure hydraulic jetting.
The current paper presents a very good analysis and an evaluation of the radial drilling techniques that have been made in one of the Egyptian oil field, and presents screening criteria about the optimum parameters for performing these techniques. A number of pilot tests was performed and analyzed in Egypt in Belayim oil field. Radial drilling performed only on three wells in Egypt; the results obtained from these wells are monitored and analyzed. The reservoir depth varies from 2172 meter to 2481 meter. The first well was laterally drilled with 50 m long by seven laterals and the angle between each two is 90 degrees. The second well was laterally drilled with 50 and 90 m long by 6 laterals in two different levels. The third well was radially drilled by 4 laterals of 50 m long.
From the production point of view, the first well was improved by more than 12.5% increase in production, and the second shows an improvement by about 47% increase. The third well shows an improvement by about 12.5 % but for short period. Several experiences have been learned and registered from drilling these 17 laterals which will help generally for the future radial drilling operational around the world.