Wu, Yonghui (China University of Petroleum-Beijing, and Texas A&M University) | Cheng, Linsong (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Killough, John E. (Texas A&M University) | Huang, Shijun (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Fang, Sidong (Sinopec Exploration and Production Research Institute) | Jia, Pin (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Cao, Renyi (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Xue, Yongchao (China University of Petroleum-Beijing)
The large uncertainty in fracture characterization for shale gas reservoirs seriously affects the confidence in making forecasts, fracturing design, and taking recovery enhancement measures. This paper presents a workflow to characterize the complex fracture networks (CFNs) and reduce the uncertainty by integrating stochastic CFNs modeling constrained by core and microseismic data, reservoir simulation using a novel edge-based Green element method (eGEM), and assisted history matching based on Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF).
In this paper, the geometry of CFNs is generated stochastically constrained by the measurements of hydraulic fracturing treatment, core, and microseismic data. A stochastic parameterization model is used to generate an ensemble of initial realizations of the stress-dependent fracture conductivities of CFNs. To make the eGEM practicable for reservoir simulation, a steady-state fundamental solution is applied to the integral equation, and the technique of local grid refinement (LGR) is applied to refine the domain grids near the fractures. Finally, assisted-history-matching based on EnKF is implemented to calibrate the DFN models and further quantify the uncertainties in the fracture characterization.
The proposed technique is tested using a multi-stage fractured horizontal well from a shale gas field. After analyzing the history matching results, the proposed integrated workflow is shown to be efficient in characterizing fracture networks and reducing the uncertainties. The advantages are exhibited in several aspects. First, the eGEM-based Discrete-Fracture Model (DFM) is shown to be quite efficient in assisted history matching of large field applications because of eGEM’s high precision with coarse grids. This enables simulations of CFNs without upscaling the fractures using continuum approaches. In addition, CFNs geometry can be generated with the constraints of core and microseismic data, and a primary conductivity of CFNs can be generated using the hydraulic fracturing treatment data. Moreover, the uncertainties for CFNs characterization and EUR predictions can be further reduced with the application of EnKF in assimilating the production data.
This paper provides an efficient integrated workflow to characterize the fracture networks in fractured unconventional reservoirs. This workflow, which incorporated several efficient techniques including fracture network modeling, simulation and calibration, can be readily used in field applications. In addition, various data sources could be assimilated in this workflow to reduce the uncertainty in fracture characterization, including hydraulic fracturing treatment, core, microseismic and production data.
Petroleum Engineering enrollment and the resulting degrees granted are affected by oil and gas prices. These changes lag price by 2.5 years. The Recent peak in Bachelor of Science (BS) degrees granted 2550 (in 2017) are projected to drop 980 (in 2020). The pipeline to produce new engineers is four to five years long. As industry petroleum engineer requirement increases, it will take several years to increase the supply from previous conventional sources (programs/universities).
Petroleum Engineering enrollment and the resulting degrees granted are affected by oil and gas prices. These changes lag price by 2.5 years.
The Recent peak in Bachelor of Science (BS) degrees granted 2550 (in 2017) are projected to drop 980 (in 2020).
The pipeline to produce new engineers is four to five years long.
As industry petroleum engineer requirement increases, it will take several years to increase the supply from previous conventional sources (programs/universities).
The 2016 edition of the SPE student members quiz competition, PetroBowl, will be held at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition in Dubai on 26 September. Out of the 125 SPE student chapter teams that participated in regional qualifiers, 36 teams have been selected for competing in the championship. Selected teams from each region are listed here. Debuted in 2002 by the SPE Gulf Coast Section, PetroBowl has grown in participation and popularity among students. Beginning last year, it is organized as an international event with regional qualifiers held in Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe, South America and Caribbean, Middle East, and North America SPE regions.
SPE members from the SPE student chapter at Maharashtra Institute of Technology in Pune, India, recently hosted three Energy4me workshops in local schools. Their presentations benefitted 450 high school students from the region, and helped them learn more about the career options available in the oil and gas industry. Each of the sessions began with an introduction about the importance of energy--oil and gas in particular--and presented the benefits of being a petroleum engineer. Following the speaker sessions, the Energy4me volunteers helped the students conduct hands-on experiments illustrating some of the concepts the students had just learned: porosity, permeability, density, viscosity, and perforated casings. Attending teachers also found the experiments interesting and participated alongside the students.
The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) announces that Chevron Corporation has committed USD 800,000 over 4 years to support SPE's programs that are dedicated to increasing student participation and advancing energy education Chevron will be the sole sponsor of the student dues program, which provides support for college students to join SPE's global network of student chapters. SPE has nearly 69,000 student members in 130 countries. Also, Chevron will support the Energy4me program in which teachers and students gain invaluable knowledge about the oil and gas industry. Students learn skills on how to think, problem solve and adapt to changing conditions--competencies required to be a successful engineer. The program also educates teachers on using hands-on activities to illustrate technical aspects of engineering.
Xie is currently a PhD student majoring in petroleum and natural gas engineering in Northeast Petroleum University (NEPU) in China. Xie holds a bachelor's degree in petroleum engineering and a master's degree in oil and gas development engineering from NEPU. He has published 17 technical papers and applied for 11 patents. Xie also volunteers to teach other students on doing research and writing technical papers. The fellowship in petroleum engineering is supported by the SPE Foundation and is awarded to PhD-level students who intend to pursue a career in academia.
SPE conducted the 2017 International Student Paper Contests (SPC) during the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (ATCE) held in San Antonio, Texas, in October. Winners of the contests for each category conducted in the 14 regions recognized by SPE competed in the international contest held during the ATCE, proving their mettle in front of the industry veterans. As an author of this article and a past winner of the SPC Undergraduate Division in 2015, Yogashri Pradhan finds the student winners' summaries relatable, and agrees that SPC preparation and results continue to benefit career development, opportunities, and daily job performance. While the SPC gives direct technical experience through the research conducted, many top performers also disclose how the process is a good opportunity to showcase their soft skills and provides other intangible gains. Marjohny Long from Universidad Central de Venezuela, a winner of this year's Undergraduate category, said that winning the highly competitive SPC not only increases her confidence but also leads her to believe that it will motivate the women in the oil and gas industry to excel.
More than 400 students from 20 SPE student chapters across the US, Mexico, and Canada gathered at the annual SPE North America Student Symposium (NASS) held at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge during 21–24 February. This year's symposium focused on data analytics and called upon a range of industry professionals to come together to discuss the challenges and opportunities of today's digital age. More than 25 SPE student members from 15 universities organized various events that honed in on the digital aspect of the oil and gas industry. Co-directors for the event included Abdul Homran (LSU), Adam Larson (Penn State University), and Bryan McDowell (Colorado School of Mines). Discussions at the symposium addressed the new wave of technology that's emerging in oil and gas--Big Data.
SPE's Senior Professionals – members aged 55 and older – are integral to SPE and the oil and gas industry. That's why this year, we're initiating programs and services that will target the extensive skills, expertise, and experiences of this member group. SPE member survey feedback suggests that the level of Senior Professional engagement decreases in the later stages of their career, whether they work full time, are retired, or are semi-retired, and that their needs also change. With Senior Professionals making up 26% of SPE's professional membership, keeping this group engaged in activities and programs is a top priority. To foster better engagement among Senior Professionals, SPE is creating global programming and encouraging involvement at the section level.
As chair and past chair of SPE's Canadian educational entity, we wanted to update the industry and members about the foundation's work. Most engineers working in the Canadian oil and gas industry and many Canadian SPE members may not realize that SPE Canada has a Canadian Educational Foundation for its members. So, a bit of a history lesson is in order. The SPE Canadian Educational Foundation currently has nearly USD 1,000,000. Most of the funding came from the Petroleum Society of the CIM (Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum).