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The downtime of manufacturing machinery, engines, or industrial equipment can cause an immediate loss of revenue. Reliable prediction of such failures using multivariate sensor data can prevent or minimize the downtime. With the availability of real-time sensor data, machine-learning and deep-learning algorithms can learn the normal behavior of the sensor systems, distinguish anomalous circumstances, and alert the end user when a deviation from normal conditions occurs.
Although reserves estimates for known accumulations historically have used deterministic calculation procedures, the 1997 SPE/WPC definitions allow either deterministic or probabilistic procedures. Each of these is discussed briefly in the next two sections. Thereafter--except for another section on probabilistic procedures near the end--the chapter will focus on deterministic procedures because they still are more widely used. Both procedures need the same basic data and equations. Deterministic calculations of oil and/or gas initially in place (O/GIP) and reserves are based on best estimates of the true values of pertinent parameters, although it is recognized that there may be considerable uncertainty in such values.
This glossary was created through discussions among the steering committee for the SPE Global Integrated Workshop Series (GIWS) on Production Forecasting. Some definitions were not contested at all, others generated fierce discussions. The contract quantity is the contractually agreed volumes and limits: predefined (annual) volume of natural gas on contract level. A factor applied to forecasts to take into account the fact that a Production System will not always operate at 100% of its capacity. Available But Not Required, that part of the IPSC that is available for production but not produced because of low off-take demand.
Human error can be defined as an action or behavior that unintentionally results in an undesirable or unwanted condition or leads a task or system outside of acceptable limits or established standards. An error-free workplace is not possible. The average worker will make anywhere from 10 to 12 errors per hour. These errors, however, will not necessarily lead to an injury or quality defect and are considered to be part of normal operations. One might expect workers to become more competent and the quantity of errors to decrease with increased experience.
Geostatistical reservoir-modeling technologies depart from traditional deterministic modeling methods through consideration of spatial statistics and uncertainties. Geostatistical models typically examine closely the numerous solutions that satisfy the constraints imposed by the data. Using these tools, we can assess the uncertainty in the models, the unknown that inevitably results from never having enough data. Reservoir characterization encompasses all techniques and methods that improve our understanding of the geologic, geochemical, and petrophysical controls of fluid flow. It is a continuous process that begins with the field discovery and all the way through to the last phases of production and abandonment.
Total recoverable oil resources around the globe fell to 1,725 billion bbl, according to a newly published estimate from Rystad Energy on Tuesday. The figure represents a drop of 9% on a year-over-year basis from 2020's estimate of 1,903 billion recoverable bbl. The trendlines Rystad has drawn point toward oil and natural gas liquids production falling below 50 million B/D by 2050--or about 50% off the peak seen prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. This spells bad news for the outlook of many oil companies, but for those still pumping in 2050 it may signal that the industry has succeeded in striking a balance between meeting the world's energy needs and its climate concerns. Per Magnus Nysveen, Rystad's head of analysis: "Exploring, developing, processing, and consuming this amount of commercially extractable oil will lead to gross greenhouse-gas emissions of less than 450 gigatons of CO2 from now until 2100. This is compliant with [the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's] carbon budget for global warming limited to 1.8 C by 2100."
Developing a corporate safety attitude to reduce and hopefully eliminate injuries, accidents and releases of toxic chemicals has been practiced for many years. The activities and technologies described below are interconnected with other safety approaches; however it is useful to consider them separately since they are primarily associated with different parts of most jobs. The hurt based approach to safety is a methodology for assessing safety incidents with high consequence potential. This approach helps to determine the depth of investigation requirements (in addition to actual severity). The hurt based approach is used to identify the integral potential and consistent actual severity of an incident and also used as a safety culture enabler.
Schlumberger and Panasonic have announced that they will collaborate on a new battery-grade-lithium production process that they say will pave the way for improved lithium production to help meet the expected surge in demand from the fast-growing global electric vehicle (EV) market. The announcement came from the Schlumberger New Energy arm of Schlumberger and from Panasonic Energy of North America, a division of Panasonic Corporation of North America. The lithium-extraction and -production process will be used by Schlumberger at the Nevada pilot plant of its Neolith Energy venture. According to Schlumberger, Neolith Energy's approach uses a differentiated direct-lithium-extraction process to produce high-purity, battery-grade lithium material while reducing production time from more than a year to weeks. The company also said the process significantly reduces groundwater use and physical footprint vs. conventional evaporative methods of extracting lithium.
Some Texas leaders and oil and gas industry advocates have for years promoted the idea that produced water--the waste water generated through oil and gas development--has a role to play in meeting broad water needs in the state. However, the state has a limited understanding of the chemicals in this waste water and how programs to reuse it outside the oil field could be practiced safely, if at all. Acknowledging the necessity to better understand treatment needs, economic challenges, and public health and environmental risks of industry's waste water, the Texas Legislature recently passed Senate Bill 601, establishing a Texas Produced Water Consortium. The consortium will be housed at Texas Tech University and will bring together a wide swath of agency advisors, technical experts, and key stakeholders to consider these issues and produce a report with recommendations over the next year. The group is charged with suggesting legal and regulatory changes to better enable beneficial uses, identifying pilot projects and assessing the economics of using produced water both efficiently but also in a way that protects public health and the environment.
Mendez Gutierrez, Freddy Alfonso (ADNOC Offshore) | Abdel Karim, Islam Khaled (ADNOC Offshore) | Oviedo Vargas, Mario Ramon (ADNOC Offshore) | Alzaabi, Mohamed Abdulrahman (ADNOC Offshore) | Al Ali, Salim Abdalla (ADNOC Offshore) | Toki, Takahiro (ADNOC Offshore) | Ramanujan, Jeughale (ADNOC Offshore) | Wagstaff, Scott (ADNOC Offshore) | Tanaka, Hisaya (ADNOC Offshore) | Iftikhar, Bilal (ADNOC Offshore) | Torres Premoli, Javier Ernesto (ADNOC Offshore) | Abdelhalim, Khaled (Coretrax, Churchill Drillling tools) | Juarez Moreno, Daniel (Weatherford) | Yadav, Anurag (Weatherford) | Chohan, Imran Muhammad (Weatherford)
Abstract A Major Operating Company in UAE planned and drilled a challenging 6 inch horizontal drain after crossing twenty-seven formation sub-layers. The heterogeneity of pore pressure varied from equivalent mud weights as high as 10.6 ppg to as low as 7.1 ppg across the exposed reservoirs. Control of the equivalent circulating density (ECD) values to safely drill across these multi-reservoir sections and diverse reservoir pressures was one of the top challenges on this well, as the fracture gradients (FG) ranged from 13.5 ppg across the competent reservoirs to as low as 11ppg across the fractured reservoir section. The offset well data review show that 4 out of 6 wells encountered moderate, severe and total losses with mud weight (MW) ranging from 11 ppg to 11.3 ppg, which were cured by using heavy LCM treatments and in some cases, after several failed attempts to cure losses, cement plugs were used. Historically, the average time spent curing total losses in these wells varied from 2-3.5 weeks causing well cost increments as consequence of this non-productive time. All of the above, without mentioning the extra efforts, resources and risks were faced due to well control and stuck pipe events which occurred on those wells. Engineering and Operation teams worked together to engineer a solution to drill this well in one run while safely maintaining the well under control and managing the losses. The Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) was designed to withstand the well challenges including multiple contingency options. These options allowed:Improving hole quality while tripping using a special type of eccentric reamer stabilizer. Pumping various LCM concentration scenarios through a multi-cycle circulation valve. In addition, a special type of float valve was placed on the top of the BHA as barrier, stopping back flow under surface backpressure or kick scenarios. Optimizing mud weight by using formation pressure while drilling (FPWD) and monitoring both equivalent circulating density ECD and equivalent static density (ESD) by pressure while drilling tools. The drilling fluid was loaded with non-damaging loss circulation material without compromising the MWD/LWD limits. Additionally, the mud rheology was carefully selected and monitored to achieve the desired ECD. On surface, a managed pressure while drilling system was deployed to give control on reservoir pressures. In instances of influx, MPD allows to early detect any kick and controlled by surface back pressure without requiring shut in for applying standard well control techniques. Keeping the well under control by surface back pressure (SBP) during connections time (flow–off). Additionally, MPD also enables the contingency of applying pressurized mud capping in case of unable to control the losses. As decision point, a loss management plan was prepared and implemented. Also, a dynamic formation integrity test was planned and performed to calibrate the fracture gradient across the loss zones. The problematic zone was successfully drilled with one BHA in under six days (5.73 days). The estimated savings for the company were 8 days, which equates to ±1MMUS$ after including the MPD cost which increased the well cost by 200MUS$. To further complement the outright savings, the engineered solution managed to safely stave off operational complications as well as incurring the related complexities and non-productive time (NPT) as recorded on the offset wells. Additionally, well was successfully landed and geo-steered across the target formation and 4½ in liner was run and cemented off-bottom avoiding the need to develop a slot recovery scope on this well with an extra duration of +/-35 days. The engineered solution provided a high level of preparation and contingencies within the BHA, Managed Pressure Drilling Equipment, real time monitoring, mud and cement formulation. The applied techniques allowed the operating company to successfully execute this challenge well within the proposed time and budget.