The traditional advantage of petroleum-based transport fuels of unmatched energy-density and affordability is diluted with the requirement to lower atmospheric carbon. However, despite a significant R&D effort and investment over the last three decades, humanity is still looking for carbon neutral alternatives to petroleum that can be commercially viable. This paper presents meaningful novel approaches to deal with carbon abatement utilizing petroleum that have a better chance to succeed in fulfilling the underlying techno-economic desirables.
While the multi-directional work performed in the past on the subject has informed us on a variety of related topics, going forward the society can benefit from a systematic approach to solving atmospheric CO2 problem building on the petroleum advantage. A framework formulating the challenge in terms of techno-economic and environmental requirements is presented that narrows down further work to only meaningful and promising leads. With this framework in mind a few specific pathways are proposed that naturally hold the desired traits if certain conditions are met. These conditions in turn define specific objectives of the subsequent developmental work. While it is premature to suggest any of these will develop into a commercially viable pragmatic method, due to the underlying criteria they hold a better chance to be successful. The presented pathways using advances in electro-chemistry, nanoscience, rational design, and other areas range from (a) mimicking natural fixation of CO2 as in plants to produce tailored polysaccharides or food, to (b) converting CO2 to substances such as carboxylic acids for easy and cost effective sequestration, to (c) changing the way petroleum fuel is used in internal combustion engines to alter the exit state of oxidation of carbon so that the waste product is easily and economically captured compared to the conventional waste product - CO2.
One outcome from the framework results in collapse of the economic models and associated technical approaches that aim to convert CO2 to sellable products, owing mainly to the volume of the global GHG challenge. On the other hand, a common element in the proposed promising leads is to deal with the problem of carbon abatement as an added step with an associated cost. The lower this cost, the less diluted the petroleum-advantage. In this context the framework also points to a range of relative costs that the carbon abatement approaches have to work within to retain the petroleum advantage.
The outlined technical approaches of carbon abatement are not previously discussed in the literature and hold the promise to help combat the global GHG challenge in a more practical and significant way.
Tackling climate change is the key issue for the oil and gas industry in the years ahead. The authors review the reasons for capturing CO2 and possible applications such as enhanced recovery and sequestration. Antarctica is the storehouse of the world’s oldest ice-borne climate records, preserved in the Antarctic deep freeze for millions of years. But Antarctica is also a living laboratory in which the decadal effects of climate change can be directly observed. Neeraj Gupta of the Battelle Memorial Institute and Nigel Jenvey of Maersk Oil and Gas comment on technology applications for carbon emission control and enhanced oil recovery.
Policies can be very effective at driving behavior, but they must work in concert with enabling technology to realize the outcomes we desire, including increased energy efficiency and reduced emissions. Interviews with three women who are working to develop solutions to climate change. Tackling climate change is the key issue for the oil and gas industry in the years ahead. The authors review the reasons for capturing CO2 and possible applications such as enhanced recovery and sequestration. Antarctica is the storehouse of the world’s oldest ice-borne climate records, preserved in the Antarctic deep freeze for millions of years.
Briefly stated, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) will help us to sustain many of the benefits of using hydrocarbons to generate energy as we move into a carbon-constrained world. Even though the CO2 generated by burning hydrocarbons cannot always be captured easily in some cases (as in oil used for transportation), sequestration of CO2 from other sources (such as coal-fired power stations) can help to create, to some degree, the “headroom” needed for the volumes of CO2 that escape capture. Because of the likely continuing competitive (direct) cost of hydrocarbons and in light of the huge investment in infrastructure already made to deliver them, the combination of fossil fuel use with CCS is likely to be emphasized as a strong complement to strategies involving alternative, nonhydrocarbon sources of energy. Moreover, the exploitation of heavy oil, tar sands, oil shales, and liquids derived from coal for transportation fuel is likely to increase, even though these come with a significantly heavier burden of CO2 than that associated with conventional oil and gas. CCS has the potential to mitigate some of this extra CO2 burden. If we wish to sustain the use of oil, gas, and coal to meet energy demands in a carbon-constrained world and to provide time to move toward alternative energy sources, then it will be necessary to plan for and implement CCS over the coming decades. Subsequently, we should expect a continued need for CCS beyond the end of the century.
This paper highlights the results of a test campaign for a tool designed to predict the short-term trends of energy-efficiency indices and optimal management of a production plant. In recent years, some effort has been made to use EOR techniques, particularly CO2 injection, to extract additional oil and gas from unconventional resources. This has the potential to change the dynamics (again) of oil production from these tight and difficult reservoirs. In my previous features, I discussed the challenges facing carbon dioxide (CO2), both technical and economic. By far the biggest use of CO2 is in enhanced oil recovery (EOR).
Dr. Greenberg is the principal investigator for the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), one of the U.S. Department of Energy's seven regional sequestration partnerships and the founder of the Sequestration Training and Education Program (STEP). Over the last 15 years, she has consulted or contributed to more than 30 carbon capture and storage projects, especially in the areas of project development, risk reduction, and stakeholder engagement. Dr. Greenberg's combination of advanced degrees in low temperature geochemistry and education provide a unique perspective on understanding public challenges related to balancing societal demands for energy with environmental concern. She currently is a Prairie Research Institute Science Fellow. Dr. Greenberg holds a Ph.D. in Secondary and Continuing Education and Master of Science degree in Geology from the University of Illinois, and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Geology from Alfred University in New York.
You, Junyu (Petoleum Recovery Research Center) | Ampomah, William (Petoleum Recovery Research Center) | Kutsienyo, Eusebius Junior (Petoleum Recovery Research Center) | Sun, Qian (Petoleum Recovery Research Center) | Balch, Robert Scott (Petoleum Recovery Research Center) | Aggrey, Wilberforce Nkrumah (KNUST) | Cather, Martha (Petoleum Recovery Research Center)
This paper presents an optimization methodology on field-scale numerical compositional simulations of CO2 storage and production performance in the Pennsylvanian Upper Morrow sandstone reservoir in the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Ochiltree County, Texas. This work develops an improved framework that combines hybridized machine learning algorithms for reduced order modeling and optimization techniques to co-optimize field performance and CO2 storage.
The model's framework incorporates geological, geophysical, and engineering data. We calibrated the model with the performance history of an active CO2 flood data to attain a successful history matched model. Uncertain parameters such as reservoir rock properties and relative permeability exponents were adjusted to incorporate potential changes in wettability in our history matched model.
To optimize the objective function which incorporates parameters such as oil recovery factor, CO2 storage and net present value, a proxy model was generated with hybridized multi-layer and radial basis function (RBF) Neural Network methods. To obtain a reliable and robust proxy, the proxy underwent a series of training and calibration runs, an iterative process, until the proxy model reached the specified validation criteria. Once an accepted proxy was realized, hybrid evolutionary and machine learning optimization algorithms were utilized to attain an optimum solution for pre-defined objective function. The uncertain variables and/or control variables used for the optimization study included, gas oil ratio, water alternating gas (WAG) cycle, production rates, bottom hole pressure of producers and injectors. CO2 purchased volume, and recycled gas volume in addition to placement of new infill wells were also considered in the modelling process.
The results from the sensitivity analysis reflect impacts of the control variables on the optimum results. The predictive study suggests that it is possible to develop a robust machine learning optimization algorithm that is reliable for optimizing a developmental strategy to maximize both oil production and storage of CO2 in aqueous-gaseous-mineral phases within the FWU.