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Water sources are treated for disposal, injection as a liquid, or injection as steam with three types of facilities. Produced water is treated in offshore operations for overboard disposal or injection into a disposal well. Water sources are treated for disposal, injection as a liquid, or injection as steam with three types of facilities. Surface water is treated offshore for liquid injection and onshore for liquid- or steam-injection purposes. In all instances, the surface water must be cleaned of dispersed and dissolved solids to a level suitable for reservoir or steam-generation purposes.
Al-Nakhli, Ayman R. (Saudi Aramco) | Tariq, Zeeshan (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals) | Mahmoud, Mohamed (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals) | Abdulraheem, Abdulazeez (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals)
Abstract Commercial volumes of hydrocarbon production from tight unconventional reservoirs need massive hydraulic fracturing operations. Tight unconventional formations are typically located inside deep and over-pressured formations where the rock fracture pressure with slickwater becomes so high because of huge in situ stresses. Therefore, several lost potentials and failures were recorded because of high pumping pressure requirements and reservoir tightness. In this study, thermochemical fluids are introduced as a replacement for slickwater. These thermochemical fluids are capable of reducing the rock fracture pressure by generating micro-cracks and tiny fractures along with the main hydraulic fractures. Thermochemical upon reaction can generate heat and pressure simultaneously. In this study, several hydraulic fracturing experiments in the laboratory on different synthetic cement samples blocks were carried out. Cement blocks were made up of several combinations of cement and sand ratios to simulate real rock scenarios. Results showed that fracturing with thermochemical fluids can reduce the breakdown pressure of the cement blocks by 30%, while applied pressure was reduced up to 88%, when using thermochemical fluid, compared to slickwater. In basins with excessive tectonic stresses, the current invention can become an enabler to fracture and stimulate well stages which otherwise left untreated. A new methodology is developed to lower the breakdown pressure of such reservoirs, and enable fracturing. Keywords: Unconventional formation; breakdown pressure; thermochemicals; micro fractures.
The most striking thing about the recent symposium put on by SPE's Gulf Coast Section was the more than 100 people in the room. During the breaks, it was nearly impossible to have a conversation without a mention of how good it is to be back meeting people in person and shaking hands, like it was before the COVID-19 pandemic. Things, indeed, are looking a lot better. The feeling that day, and the message from speakers at the Acquisitions and Divestitures (A&D) Symposium, offered an upbeat outlook for those buying and selling assets and, perhaps, a path for more such gatherings. "Last year, everyone was focused on liquidity and lenders and how many people I am firing this week and cost reductions and mergers and acquisitions," said Doug Reynolds, managing director for Simmons Energy, a division of Piper Sandler.
Wartenberg, Nicolas (Solvay-The EOR Alliance) | Kerdraon, Margaux (Solvay-The EOR Alliance) | Salaun, Mathieu (Solvay-The EOR Alliance) | Brunet-Errard, Lena (IFPEN-The EOR Alliance) | Fejean, Christophe (IFPEN-The EOR Alliance) | Rousseau, David (IFPEN-The EOR Alliance)
Abstract This paper is dedicated to the selection of the most effective way of mitigating surfactant adsorption in chemical EOR flooding. Mitigation strategies based on either water treatment or adsorption inhibitors were benchmarked for a sea water injection brine, on both performances and economics aspects. Performances in surfactant adsorption reduction were evaluated by applying salinity and/or hardness gradient strategies through dedicated water softening techniques, such as reverse osmosis or nanofiltration. Adsorption inhibitor addition, which does not require any water treatment, was also assessed and optimized for comparison. For each scenario, a suitable surfactant formulation was designed and evaluated through phase diagrams, static adsorption and diphasic coreflood experiments. Then the real benefit of surfactant adsorption reduction on the overall EOR process economics (including the costs of chemicals and water treatment) was assessed depending on the selected strategy. Sea water was considered as the injection brine for this study as it is widely used in chemical EOR process and often suffers high surfactant adsorption level. It was found that residual oil saturation after chemical flooding (SORc) dropped from 29% to 7% by applying a hardness gradient through nanofiltration process while 4% was reached with reverse osmosis. Regarding costs and footprint however, nanofiltration was found to be more advantageous. Adsorption inhibitors addition met similar performances to nanofiltration-based process (SORc=7%) and could be a valuable option depending on injected volume (pilot or small deployment) or field location (off-shore) as they do not require water treatment plant investment. Overall, this study provides useful practical insights on both performances and economics for selecting the most adapted strategy depending on the considered field case.
In a world where smartphone users chafe at 4G signals that top out at 10 million bits per second, downhole drilling data are still conveyed to surface at less than 10 bits per second. This week, a Norwegian company rolled out the latest effort to change the status quo that depends on mud pulses and memory cards to gather downhole drilling data. Reelwell announced it has sold its first two strings of wired pipe to Nabors Drilling, which supported the testing work that demonstrated it could reliably handle power and data along the drillstring. The announcement by Reelwell was made at the virtual SPE/IADC International Drilling Conference, setting off a discussion about why NOV and others have been unable to create a large market for wired pipe after more than a decade of trying. The value seems self-evident: Digital creates a huge appetite for power and the bandwidth to collect a lot of data in real time.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) leaks can cause problems that affect both workers and equipment in the drilling industry. The explosive gas naturally occurs in oil and natural gas deposits. The lesser risk from H2S, corrosion of metal, paint, and epoxy, can be prevented with the use of special coating. The greater risk, the risk to the health of industry workers, can be prevented with detection equipment. More recently, nanotechnology has been tested to detect H2S in the air.
Microbial Exploration Technology (MET), also called microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), is a method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that identifies microorganism levels in soil near reservoir surfaces to estimate hydrocarbon levels. This method is largely based on the premise that the more microorganisms present, the more hydrocarbons are present for those microorganisms to feed on. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria can be used to detect migrating hydrocarbon gases from oil and gas deposits. As short chain hydrocarbon gases migrate to the surface, bacterial cells metabolize these gases in the near surface aerobic zone. In the laboratory, EBT measures the response from these hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and develops their recommendations based on a proprietary data analysis process.
Dynamic data is information that changes asynchronously as the information is updated. Unlike static data, which is infrequently accessed and unlikely to be modified, or streaming data, which has a constant flow of information, dynamic data involves updates that may come at any time, with sporadic periods of inactivity in between. In the context of reservoir engineering, dynamic data is used during the creation of a reservoir model in conjunction with historical static data. When modeled accurately, any sampling from the conditional distribution would produce accurate static and dynamic characteristics. When a permanence of ratio hypothesis is employed, the conditional probability P(AǀB,C) can be expressed in terms of P(A), P(AǀB), and P(AǀC).
The imminent need to bring YPs and students close to field development activities led the SPE Balikpapan Section to launch the 2020 Virtual Integrated Field Development Workshop and Symposium. The initiative aimed to highlight the technical, commercial, and business approaches from a field development perspective, and provide a taste of the variables that are taken into consideration when making decisions with limited information. The Workshop had multiple sessions from July to November 2020. The content was presented by distinguished speakers from Pertamina Hulu Mahakam. One of the webinars was organized as the Technology Ideas Symposium.
The inaugural SPE Asia Pacific Virtual Symposium on CCUS and Contaminants Management was held 7–9 December 2020 with support from Petronas and PTTEP as Principal Sponsors and Shell as the Silver Sponsor. With rising global demands for sustainable transformation in the energy industry, carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technologies play an important role toward a sustainable future. Coupled with contaminants management, CCUS has the potential to deliver sustainable environmental benefits, improve reliability, and increase economic viability. These benefits have attracted the support for CCUS from a wide range of stakeholders in recent years. Mohamed Firouz Asnan, senior vice president of Malaysia petroleum management at Petronas, in his keynote delivery, said, "The time is now, and this is evident in the Petronas carbon-commitment efforts on greenhouse-gas (GHG) reduction through the seven United Nation Sustainable Development Goals. As the country's resource owner and manager, we have the responsibility to manage and ensure that our gas resources are developed responsibly and efficiently in the most cost-effective manner. Because gas is a finite resource, we only have one chance at it. We need to do it in a sustainable manner, minimizing the impact to the environment. We must design and develop the right technology and fit-for-purpose strategy for our environment since there are increasing financial and regulatory requirements to report and control GHG emissions."