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In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the oil and gas industry, regulators, and other stakeholders recognized the need for increased collaboration and data sharing to augment their ability to better identify safety risks and address them before an accident occurs. The SafeOCS program is one such collaboration between industry and government. It is a voluntary confidential reporting program that collects and analyzes data to advance safety in oil and gas operations on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The US Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) established the program with input from industry and then entered into an agreement with the US Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) to develop, implement, and operate the program. As a principal statistical agency, BTS has considerable data-collection-and-analysis expertise with near-miss reporting systems for other industries and the statutory authority to protect the confidentiality of the reported information and the reporter’s identify. Source data submitted to BTS are not subject to subpoena, legal discovery, or Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests.
In this 27 November 2007 file photo, a rough-legged hawk feeds on a rodent in a field near Great Falls, Montana. Down to its final weeks, the Trump administration is working to push through dozens of environmental rollbacks that could weaken century-old protections for migratory birds, expand Arctic drilling, and hamstring future regulation of public health threats. Down to its final weeks, the Trump administration is working to push through dozens of environmental rollbacks that could weaken century-old protections for migratory birds, expand Arctic drilling, and hamstring future regulation of public health threats. The pending changes, which benefit oil and gas and other industries, deepen the challenges for President-elect Joe Biden, who made restoring and advancing protections for the environment, climate, and public health a core piece of his campaign. The proposed changes cap 4 years of unprecedented environmental deregulation by President Donald Trump, whose administration has worked to fundamentally change how federal agencies apply and enforce the Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, and other protections.
A polar bear sow and two cubs are seen on the Beaufort Sea coast within the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in this undated handout photo provided by the US Fish and Wildlife Service Alaska Image Library on 21 December 2005. The Trump administration on Thursday proposed to loosen Obama-era safety regulations for the oil industry in the Arctic Ocean off Alaska to ease the way for petroleum extraction in the region, an effort that President-elect Joe Biden will likely throw out once in office. The proposal would revise a suite of Obama-era rules crafted to improve safety in the extreme conditions of the Arctic after a Shell drilling rig ran aground in the Gulf of Alaska in 2012. The company later abandoned oil exploration in the Arctic, and there are no active drilling operations there. Now, much of the US portion of the Arctic Ocean—the Chukchi Sea and part of the Beaufort Sea—is off-limits to new oil and gas leasing under a 2019 judge’s order that overturned President Donald Trump’s effort to open vast areas of the Arctic and Atlantic oceans to oil leasing.
Liao, Zhenkun (College of Engineering, Ocean University of China) | Dong, Sheng (College of Engineering, Ocean University of China) | Wang, Zhifeng (College of Engineering, Ocean University of China) | Tao, Shanshan (College of Engineering, Ocean University of China)
In this paper, based on the current data since 1996 to 2015 obtained by the FVCOM ocean model, the design surface current speed of three selected sites in the Barents Sea is studied. Four types of probability distributions are applied to fit omnidirectional or directional annual extreme current speed, then corresponding return values are estimated. The results show that the return values of omnidirectional current speed are generally larger than those of directional, but there are exceptions, which should be taken into account when estimating and using the design parameters of ocean current speed.
In recent years, the ice cover of Arctic sea is declining. Bader et al. (2011) reviewed the research on the sea ice of Northern Hemisphere, and they concluded that the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean has decreased significantly in all seasons, with the fastest decline in summer, and probably will even be completely ice-free by the summer of 2040. Ross and Fissel (2018) reviewed recent findings of sea-ice research, they concluded that Arctic sea ice has changed a lot in the past 30 years, and its coverage has been greatly reduced especially in the summer and early fall, people are expected to have more Arctic commercial transportation and offshore oil and gas exploration in this century.
The Barents Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, with the Norwegian Seas to the west and the Kara Sea to the east. The Barents Sea has a maximum depth of 600m, and in its southeast near the Svalbard Archipelago, there is a wide continental shelf with a depth of less than 100m (ISO, 2010). This sea area is rich in oil and gas resources (U.S. Geological Survey, 2008). Herbaut et al. (2015) found that, the average area of sea ice in the Barents Sea has decreased rapidly since 2005, Specifically from 670 000 km2 in 2005 to 400,000 km2 in 2012. Duan et al (2018) found that the sea ice in the Barents Sea is experiencing a decreasing process with oscillations in some periods due to unsteady and extreme synoptic process.
This study investigates pressure distribution and horizontal wave force on a vertical breakwater and the variation of wave force with different incident period based on weakly compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (WCSPH) and Flow-3D model, respectively. The numerical wave flume is established and the second-order waves are generated by a piston. Numerical calculation shows that the results of these two methods are in good agreement with experiments. In order to analyze the effect of pressure distribution and wave force with wave period, a series of numerical tests were carried out. Research results indicate that under the same incident wave height and water depth, as wave period increases, the pressure distribution and wave forces increase. Wave crest force basically increases linearly with the period. The increasing rate of the wave trough force gradually decreases. Under the same period and wave height, as the water depth increases, the crest force and trough force also increase.
Breakwaters are generally constructed for dissipation and reflection of incident wave energy in order to decrease the wave height to protect the coast against the erosion and to reduce the force acting on coastal structures. As wave period becomes longer, the wave loads on breakwater increases. Therefore, research on wave load with period is important significantly.
In coastal engineering, long period wave load on breakwater has attracted more and more attention. Long-period wave often occurs in the Arabian Sea (Amrutha et al. 2017), Indian Ocean (Tan et al. 2015) and so on. Many researches have been carried out on the wave force on the vertical breakwater. Sainflou (1928) proposed an analytical solution for pulsating wave loads. Minikin (1963) developed a formula to predict wave impact force. However, Minikin's formula is incorrect because wave force decreases with the incident wave length increasing (Allsop et al., 1996a). Fenton (1985) studied the wave pressure and forces on upright wall by potential theory. Goda (1974, 2000) developed a new formula to calculate the wave load on composite breakwater. This method has been widely used in coastal engineering and has been adopted in Japan and USA standards (Japan Standard 2009, EM 1110-2-1100 2011). However, these methods are based on potential theory and experimental data, and for some extreme cases, it may not be predictable very well.
New Mexico’s state treasurer is calling on state environmental regulators to close loopholes in proposed rules aimed at reducing emissions of methane and other pollutants from the oil and natural gas industry. State Treasurer Tim Eichenberg confirmed that he has joined with a long list of socially responsible investment groups that are citing gaps in proposed regulations from the Environment Department and the state Energy, Minerals, and Natural Resources Department. They outlined their position in a letter sent to Democratic Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham. Lujan Grisham’s administration has said New Mexico stands to have some of the most expansive rules for addressing methane and other emissions from the oil and gas industry after many meetings with industry experts and environmentalists. The draft rules released by the environment department target oil and natural gas equipment that emit volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides.
Propellant enhancement is a method of increasing permeability through the application of a transient high pressure event to the target formation. As distinct from hydraulic fracturing, propellant enhancement does not involve the application of chemicals or water and consequently does not present the potential for legacy environmental issues. This paper compares the regulatory aspects of propellant enhancement within the states of Australia and also the differences between environmental impacts.
A series of propellant enhancements were undertaken for a suite of gas wells in the Surat Basin, Queensland. Propellant charges in the range 18-30 kg were initiated, with deflagration times in the range 500-1,000 milliseconds. The compliance regime for the transport, storage and use of propellant is established under the state’s
There are three categories of fracturing used to increase permeability: explosive fracturing; hydraulic fracturing; and propellant enhancement. Explosive fracturing applies a very high pressure transient over a period of a few microseconds and can cause local, radial fracturing but with less desired compaction; hydraulic fracturing applies a lower pressure but over a longer period and with greater surface power, resulting in fractures that can extend 200-300 m, largely in the vertical plane; and propellant enhancement, which applies a mid-range pressure over a period of 10-1,000 milliseconds, resulting in fractures extending tens of metres but with random distribution. Residuals from the deflagration process are nitrogen, hydrogen chloride, water and carbon dioxide. There are no precursors for the BTEX suite and no conditions arising that could produce BTEX.
A prime question was to determine whether propellant enhancement is captured under the term ‘hydraulic fracturing’ in states’ regulations across Australia. Propellant enhancement is a technology with very few environmental impacts. Vehicular movements to support propellant enhancement are less than five percent of those to undertake hydraulic fracturing on the same formation. There is no requirement for waste water treatment.
Electricity systems around the world are changing, with the Paris Agreement of 2015 a catalyst for much of this current change.
The changing generation mix, along with the need to maintain a competent grid, is resulting in previously acceptable cost comparison metrics being used outside of their limited range of applicability. Electricity generation facilities do not only provide energy, they also provide an array of additional services which are fundamental to maintaining a permanent and reliable electricity supply across the system. These services, corresponding costs and operational implications need to be included in the evaluation of technologies in order to ensure the grids emerge transformed, resilient and genuinely sustainable. Total System Cost is the most appropriate economic metric for analysis and decision making in a future, low emissions grid.
This paper explores the outputs of the MEGS model (Model of Energy and Grid Services), showing the outcomes if a single technology group is favoured. High renewables, gas and carbon capture and storage scenarios are discussed. The optimal route to power grid decarbonisation needs to be be viewed as a team sport, not a race. It's an "and" not an "or" solution. There's a range of technologies that have very different, yet important, roles to play in providing the pathway to a low emissions, competent and reliable supply at the lowest total system cost.
On 4 November, the Railroad Commission of Texas changed how oil and gas operators apply for exemptions from the state’s rules on flaring. The agency’s approved a revamped Form R-32, Application for Exception to Statewide Rule 32, which had previously been titled Statewide Rule 32 Exception Data Sheet and will be used by oil and gas operators to apply for an exception to flare gas during oil and gas operations. The form provides specific guidance on when an exception to flare would be permissible, under which circumstances, and for how long. The commissioners’ action made changes to the application for flaring exceptions, not to the state’s flaring rule, Statewide Rule 32. On 4 August, commissioners voted to publish a proposed version of the application for public comment.
Joe Biden speaks about climate change and wildfires at a campaign event on 14 September in Wilmington, Delaware. The EPA and Interior Department under President-elect Joe Biden will have a range of tools at their disposal to start undoing President Donald Trump’s deregulatory agenda on the environment, according to former agency officials, lawyers, and environmentalists. Many of the administration’s more ambitious environmental goals, such as reviving regulations on climate pollutants from power plants and automobiles, will take longer to change or put into place. But most observers expect Biden’s team to get working immediately after inauguration on smaller measures, such as the “secret science” rule that would block the EPA from using scientific research that is not or cannot be made public. But some who support Trump’s rollbacks warn that Biden will pay for being too ambitious in efforts to reverse them.