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This two-day course is an introduction to inorganic scaling. It includes an overview of the different types of inorganic oilfield scales encountered during production, and the various methods used to control them. Field examples will illustrate the importance of an effective scale management strategy. Why scale forms and how to treat it, including both chemical and engineering solutions Conventional acid soluble scales (carbonates) and non-acid soluble scales (sulphates) as well as other less common scales such as sulphides The chemistry of scale inhibition as well as the benefits and limitations of different chemical inhibitors The squeeze process, the mechanisms involved, and the various chemical and reservoir factors that control the treatment lifetime, as well other chemical deployment methods such as continuous injection, etc. Throughout the course extensive reference is made to real field case studies and other published works to illustrate the importance of the various aspects covered.
The combination will operate and share ownership of midstream gas assets in the Utica and Marcellus Shale plays. CPPIB financially backs operator Encino Energy, which last year acquired Chesapeake Energy’s Utica assets. The high level of dissolved iron commonly present in the Marcellus waters of Pennsylvania and West Virginia adversely affects the ability of scale inhibitor to inhibit calcium carbonate scale.
This feature takes a look at the work being done by companies to improve corrosion inhibitor fluids and inhibition techniques for offshore projects. A wide range of corrosive elements and compounds from a variety of crudes has led to a renewed industry focus on corrosion and the effects it has on pipelines and vessels. As the world's supply of crude becomes heavier, many of the world’s oil producers will have to think more carefully about heavy crudes and the challenges they pose for processing, storage, and transportation. Semoga and Kaji fields experienced reservoir souring and suffered a history of calcium-carbonate (CaCO3) -scale cases before a proper scale-inhibition program was implemented. Problems with a free water knockout discovered continued scale issues, leading to investigation of the reasons.
A small core team with the ability to make decisions was responsible for getting a subsea tie-back project up to sanction within a short-time frame. When the underlying cause of flow-related issues on offshore projects is unknown, an expert said an investigation of fluid flow behavior based on an understanding of the first principles of flow assurance is necessary. This paper focuses on a numerical-modeling analysis of the acid-gas-injection (AGI) scenario in carbonate HP/HT reservoirs, and presents the way in which AGI impacts asphaltene-precipitation behavior. A presentation from the 2016 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Technical Symposium examines a testing strategy to determine the effectiveness of paraffin inhibitors.
This paper describes various sulfide inhibitor-testing techniques that have been applied to candidate products for the management of zinc sulfide (ZnS) and lead sulfide (PbS) in a gas/condensate field with a known relatively severe ZnS/PbS scaling problem. Mixed carbonate-/sulfide-scale problems have been reported when water is produced from carbonate reservoirs. This study presents interactions of lead sulfide and zinc sulfide coprecipitating with calcite.
The chemical reactions creating buildups of scale that can clog a well can be replicated in a chemical lab, but researchers are finding many more variables on the surfaces of pipes that need to be considered. At the 2017 SPE Oilfield Chemistry Conference, an assistant professor from Heriot-Watt University discusses the optimization of squeeze treatments delivered by diving support vessels. This paper describes a novel method of chemical dosage based on time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) that allows a simple, accurate, and efficient quantification of chemicals below parts-per-million ranges, even for double (scale/scale, scale/corrosion) quantification. Rigless coiled-tubing-unit (CTU) interventions can be effective in returning to production wells that have lost electrical-submersible-pump (ESP) efficiency because of organic, inorganic, or mixed scale deposits. The gas-producing carbonate zones of the Ghawar field in eastern Saudi Arabia have been affected by extensive iron sulfide (FeS) scale deposition, reducing overall gas production and increasing risks during well interventions.
Calgary-based Colombia producers Canacol Energy and Parex Resources led all firms by gaining three blocks each, with one more counteroffer from Parex pending review. India’s ONGC reported an oil find in Colombia’s Llanos Basin as well as a gas and oil discovery in Brazil’s deepwater Sergipe Alagoas Basin. Colombia’s New Ambitions Include Caribbean and Shale Development, But Are They Achievable? Colombia is walking a thin line between becoming another fading petroleum province and Latin America’s next big success story. Its aces in the hole: unleashing its nascent offshore and unconventional sectors.
This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of scale-inhibitor-analysis techniques and describes how these techniques can be used to provide cost-effective scale management. Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in the form of gypsum and anhydrite is one of the more prevalent evaporite minerals typically found in the carbonate rocks of the western Canadian sedimentary basin (WCSB).
Approved in October, the Flow Measurement Technical Section will help engage the greater SPE technical community in flow-measurement-related issues and technologies. It will cover the full spectrum of flow measurement, including single-phase and multiphase flow. At a water treatment plant for an onshore oil field in northern Germany, formaldehyde injection was started in 2015 as a biocide. The goal of this study was to understand the chemical parameters and microbial distribution in the water system and whether formaldehyde injection was effective. To facilitate testing and comparison of products that attenuate microbially influenced corrosion under field conditions, a method using microorganisms from a low-tide, anoxic North Sea sample was developed that allows corrosion measurements to be made for corroding biofilms grown on steel surfaces.