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TCP is a strong, noncorrosive, spoolable, lightweight technology which is delivered in long lengths, resulting in a reduction of transportation and installation costs. TCP is installed using small vessels or subsea pallets, significantly reducing CO2 emissions. It is also 100% recyclable. Strohm secured a contract with Total and ExxonMobil for a qualification-testing program for a high-pressure, high-temperature (HP/HT) thermoplastic composite pipe (TCP). The qualification project will create a foundation for further development of this TCP technology for riser applications.
New technology and energy production have been fundamental staples for improving our quality of life, creating jobs and expanding a vibrant U.S. and global economy. Fossil resources like crude oil and natural gas have been essential for accomplishing this. Main uses have been to fuel the production of electricity, generate heat for our comfort and manufacturing, and supply energy for transportation. Petroleum and natural gas also produce many important precursors for a multitude of products and materials that also have transformed our world. Lesser known is that our need for these materials is growing faster than our need for fuel.
An emerging demand for precursors used to produce carbon-based substances like carbon fiber, carbon nanotubes and graphene is one reason why. These materials are composed entirely of carbon. Resources containing high amounts of carbon are needed for their production. Crude oil and natural gas are well suited for that purpose and we show that a new era of uses for these important resources is evolving.
Why the interest in carbon-based materials? They are very strong, very light, and have a wide range of uncommon and extraordinary physical properties. The synthesis of these materials is rapidly gaining importance as one of the most exciting and promising innovations ever developed by man. While various sources for producing carbon-based materials have been identified, petroleum or crude oil is proving to be both suitable and preferred.
In this review paper, we (i) give examples of the numerous incredible new carbon-based products and materials that are advancing and growing, (ii) briefly discuss known processes used to make the needed material precursors from petroleum, (iii) show evidence that refinery yields are shifting from fuels to materials, and (iv) cite exciting and forward looking research programs now underway. Also discussed is why lower API gravity, or higher density petroleum known as heavy oil, could be a preferred source of carbon-based material precursors. The discussion that follows gives ample reason to step back and reassess the views expressed by some on the continued importance of fossil resources and their emerging new uses in today's world.
Field-proven, nonmetallic, thermoplastic composite pipe (TCP) technology can now be found in every oil and gas region, globally. Fully qualified for flowline, jumper, and spool usage, TCP lines can be used for full wellstream service (hydrocarbons), water injection, chemical injection, methanol injection, gas lift, and intervention. TCP products can currently be installed and operate at pressures of up to 12,500 psi, and in water depths as low as 3000 m. The focus is now on the development and deployment of TCP risers for extreme environments. Following the launch of a qualification program with Subsea 7 to certify TCP for dynamic riser applications, Airborne Oil & Gas is collaborating with engineering company SÍMEROS Technologies to deliver the first qualified TCP risers in the deepwater region of Brazil. The program is receiving funding from a major operator in the region and is aimed at qualifying the TCP riser for pre-salt and highly corrosive conditions.
Field-proven, nonmetallic, thermoplastic composite pipe (TCP) technology can now be found in every oil and gas region, globally. Fully qualified for flowline, jumper, and spool usage, TCP lines can be used for full wellstream service (hydrocarbons), water injection, chemical injection, methanol injection, gas lift, and intervention. TCP products can currently be installed and operate at pressures of up to 12,500 psi, and in water depths as low as 3000 m. The focus is now on the development and deployment of TCP risers for extreme environments. Following the launch of a qualification program with Subsea 7 to certify TCP for dynamic riser applications, Airborne Oil & Gas is collaborating with engineering company SÍMEROS Technologies to deliver the first qualified TCP risers in the deepwater region of Brazil.
Long fiber nylon 6 composites were subjected to hot, wet environments, similar to those existing downhole, for up to two days. The effects of fiber type on moisture absorption and subsequent degradation of mechanical properties were investigated. Specimens with magnesium oxide (MgO) embedded in the matrix were also prepared to study the effect of the MgO additive on moisture absorption and composite degradation. A direct correlation exists between the amount of moisture absorbed by the composites and the reduction in their mechanical properties. The type of fiber, whether glass or carbon, played a significant role in the degradation of mechanical properties with the glass fiber composites experiencing a larger reduction in strength, modulus, and fracture toughness than the carbon fiber composites. The presence of MgO served to enhance moisture absorption in both the glass fiber and carbon fiber composites and increased the degree of mechanical property degradation.
Well tie-in is an activity that requires careful measurement and fabrication methods. One of the most critical spools in onshore well tie-in is the riser connecting the wing valve in the X-mas tree to the choke valve. This piping section is regularly constructed of carbon steel and rated for high temperatures and high pressures, making it expensive and difficult to manufacture. The process of measurement and fabrication can only be initiated after the rig installs the X-mas tree in order to obtain as-built measurements. In order to optimize well tie-in, Saudi Aramco installed its first two non-metallic flexible onshore risers in two oil producers.
The non-metallic flexible onshore riser is a thermoplastic composite pipe (TCP) manufactured from carbon fiber and Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK). This construction enables it to be lightweight, strong, and able to accommodate high levels of bending strain (flexible). This TCP can be manufactured to sustain pressures of up to 15,000 psi, temperatures of up to 248 °F, and corrosion resistance to seawater, H2S and CO2. This paper describes in detail the TPC onshore riser technology design, installation and performance evaluation process.
TCP can mitigate elevation/orientation changes of wing valves and consequently accelerate tie-in procedures. The installations of these non-metallic risers were performed in under five hours each. This optimization allows for cost and time savings, as well as releasing locked potential.
This paper provides a case study of the first installations of non-metallic flexible onshore risers for well tiein in Saudi Arabia. By comparing the conventional method of installing carbon steel sections with TCP, the reader will be able to benefit from the technology benefits analysis, lessons learned, and future applications of this technology.
A conventional tie-in procedure for an onshore well producer is completed with a carbon steel gooseneck. Typically, the activities regarding the gooseneck are measuring (which can only be done after installation of the wellhead - once the rig leaves the drillsite), fabrication, coating, and installation, which can be a prolonged process. Also, during workover or well intervention, the wellhead may be re-installed at a different angle or height, which will deem the existing rigid spool unusable.
Composite repair systems composed of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials can be affected by exposure to harsh environments. The vast majority of testing on composite repair systems to date has been to investigate the effects of high temperatures on composite performance. However, depending on the location and time of year, low temperatures can also play a big role in the performance of coatings and composite repairs on pipelines. Therefore, the effects of low temperature should also be tested to prove the reliability of the composite repair systems in low temperature environments. In response to this concern, the impact of exposure to a low temperature environment below −30°C (-22°F) was investigated on a carbon fiber and epoxy composite repair system that had previously been qualified to the ASME(1) PCC-21 Article 4.1 nonmetallic repair standard. Tensile tests were performed in accordance with ASTM(2) D30392, and 5 J impact and burst tests were performed in accordance with ASME PCC-21 Article 4.1 at temperatures below −30°C (-22°F). Based on the results of the testing, it can be concluded that the specific composite repair system can be employed for low temperature applications on buried pipelines and that there is no degradation in the repair system performance. To prove that the results of the testing apply to the field, the composite repair systems were successfully applied to buried transmission pipelines in cold temperatures, the details of which will be presented.
Cold temperatures regularly have a severe impact on existing infrastructure around the world. For example, concrete is more likely to prematurely fail in areas where there are frequent freeze/thaw cycles or constant cold temperatures. In pipeline transportation, the freeze/thaw cycles or constant cold temperatures can lead to premature coating failure if a coating is not correctly sourced or applied per manufacturer’s instructions for the specific environment. The introduction and fluctuation of cold temperatures can also lead to formation of various defects on buried pipelines, depending on a multitude of factors.
In this paper, structures made of twill and orthogonal woven carbon fiber reinforced composites are analyzed using laminate theory of composite materials and finite element method for underwater vehicle structures subject to a two-point lifting condition. It is illustrated that the orthogonal woven carbon fiber composite material should be given priority in the structural design of underwater vehicles, in order to increase calculation efficiency, reduce costs and ensure the safety of the structure.
Spread moored FPSO (Floating Production and Storage Off-loading) vessels are typically used in the large West African oil fields. The oil from these vessels is transferred to shuttle tankers via an Oil Loading Terminal(OLT). This usually consists of 2 to 3 flexible offloading lines installed between the FPSO and a Single Point Mooring (SPM) with large internal diameter for 24 hour offloading. The final connection between the SPM and the shuttle tanker is made by floating hoses.
Currently the flexible off-loading lines (OOL) are designed with steel wire armor, as typically used in the Offshore West Africa Fields. With pipes reaching 23? internal diameter and up to 2300m in length, the steel wires give the pipes a substantial weight generating the need for a large number of buoyancy modules to minimize the tension at the FPSO and OLT. These modules significantly add to both the cost and the installation time.
Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) is characterized by its light weight and exceptional fatigue performance, with the ability to be manufactured as an armor wire in a long continuous single length (more than 4000 meters). It can be used as an alternative to steel wire armors to design an optimized flexible pipe structure with significant advantages: 45% decrease in submerged weight Potential to install in double catenary configuration, without leading to excessive top tension Buoyancy Modules are no longer required - installation is safer and quicker Riser configuration is no longer impacted by fluid density
45% decrease in submerged weight
Potential to install in double catenary configuration, without leading to excessive top tension
Buoyancy Modules are no longer required - installation is safer and quicker
Riser configuration is no longer impacted by fluid density
These advantages allow greater flexibility in the position of the FPSO relative to the SPM with a fixed length of riser. Because CFC Armor is not susceptible to corrosion, service life of the flexible pipe is unaffected by breaching of the outer sheath and subsequent flooding of the annulus.
This new design of flexible pipe, together with the installation and operational configurations, will be presented in this paper. In order to demonstrate the suitability of CFC, the material performance testing in severe fatigue and ageing conditions will be disclosed. The economic viability will be demonstrated by showing how the material cost is offset by the elimination of buoyancy modules and faster installation. Additionally this technology enables flexible OOL risers to be produced in a long single length.
Vipulanandan, C. (CIGMAT-University of Houston) | Krishnamoorti, R. (CIGMAT-University of Houston) | Saravanan, R. (CIGMAT-University of Houston) | Liu, J. (CIGMAT-University of Houston) | Qu, Q. (Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America) | Narvaez, G. (Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America) | Hughes, Baker (Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America) | Richardson, D. A. (Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America) | Pappas, J. M. (Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America)
For a successful cementing operation, it is critical to determine the flowing of cement slurry between the casing and formation, depth of the circulation losses and fluid loss, setting of cement in place and performance of the cement after hardening. Recent case studies on cementing failures have clearly identified some of these issues that resulted in various types of delays in the cementing operations. At present there is no technology available to monitor cementing operations in real time from the time of placement through the borehole service life. Also, there is no reliable method to determine the length of the competent cement supporting the casing.
In this study well cement was modified to have better sensing properties, smart cement, so that its behavior can be monitored at various stages of construction and during the service life of wells. A series of experiments evaluated well cement behavior with and without modifications in order to identify the most reliable sensing properties that can also be relatively easily monitored. During the initial setting the electrical resistivity changed with time based on the type and amount of additives used in the cement. During curing initial resistivity reduced by about 10 percent to reach a minimum resistance, and maximum change in resistance within the first 24 hours of curing varied from 50 to 300 percent depending on the additive. A new quantification concept has been developed to characterize cement curing based on electrical resistivity changes in the in the first 24 hours. When cement was modified with less than 0.1 percent of conductive additives, the piezoresistive behavior of the hardened smart cement was substantially improved without affecting the cement rheological and setting properties. For modified smart cement the resistivity change at peak stress was about 400 times higher than the change in the strain.