Gupta, Arpit (Weatherford Oil Tools M.E. Ltd) | Thomas, Emil (Weatherford Oil Tools M.E. Ltd) | Tomar, Gaurav (Cairn, Oil & Gas Vertical of Vedanta Limited) | Rawat, Ishita (Cairn, Oil & Gas Vertical of Vedanta Limited) | Prakash, Aditya (Cairn, Oil & Gas Vertical of Vedanta Limited) | Golwalkar, Anirudh (Cairn, Oil & Gas Vertical of Vedanta Limited) | Vermani, Sanjeev (Cairn, Oil & Gas Vertical of Vedanta Limited)
In offshore platforms, with high well density, slot recovery technique is an efficient way to target new / un-swept avenues to boost the production levels in a mature field. This leads to utilization of an appreciable length of parent bore which is an advantage to the operators globally in terms of surface facility retention and associated rig time saved. This paper discusses an actual case-study wherein dual casing exit was achieved in an offshore platform well resulting in significant time and cost savings.
For the subject well the subsurface targets were quite far from the mother-bore, resulting in a plan to side-track the well at a shallow depth where double casing existed, i.e. 9-5/8″ × 13-3/8″. The options available were pilot milling and dual exit using whipstock. Unlike multi-casing exits, pilot milling is a time consuming method which requires multiple trips and involves large volume of metal swarf handling at surface. The CBL-VDL verified the presence of cement outside 9 5/8″ casing that further supported the case of dual casing exit operation. Consequently, associated risks were discussed and plans to mitigate the same were put in place.
Single-trip 8-1/2″ whipstock-milling system was used to cut a window suitable for running drilling BHAs, liner, and completion equipment. The 9-5/8″ × 13-3/8″ annulus was monitored during milling and FIT test to check for any pressure communications. For well control scenario, arrangements were made for connecting the annulus to the choke manifold to ensure a closed system and thereby have provision of circulating through choke in case of gas migration in the 9-5/8″ × 13-3/8″ annulus. The window milling operation was done using sea water & intermittent Hi-vis sweeps. The window was milled successfully in a "single trip", thereby saving considerable rig time. No excess drag or held-up was observed and gauge loss on mills when pulled out of the hole was negligible. Well integrity was intact with no pressure communication in the annulus. The job was a successful one that led to finishing the well within the planned time and thereby, led to timely release of the jack up rig before the onset of adverse weather conditions.
Multi-casing exit technology in two or three casing strings opens the multi-level advantages to well intervention techniques especially in situations where the wells are old with limited access due to presence of fish or other restrictions that makes the deeper section of the well non-usable. Such sections can be avoided by sidetracking at a shallow depth and also provides an opportunity to access targets that are quite far from the original mother-bore.
Cement sheath is a critical barrier for maintaining well integrity. Formation of micro-annulus due to volume shrinkage and/or pressure/temperature changes is the major challenge in achieving good hydraulic seal. Expansion of cement after the placement is a promising solution to this problem. Expanding cement can potentially close micro-annulus and further achieve pre-stress condition because of the confinement. Primary aim of this paper is to investigate mechanical integrity of different pre-stressed cement system under loading condition.
To achieve the objectives, finite element modelling approach was employed. Three dimensional computer models consisting of liner, cement sheath, and casing were developed. Pre-stress condition was generated by modelling contact interference at the cement-casing interface. Three cement (ductile, moderately ductile, and brittle) were considered for simulation cases. Wellbore and annulus pressure were applied. Resultant, radial, hoop, and maximum shear stresses were investigated at the cement-pipe interface to assess mechanical integrity. For comparison purpose, similar simulations were conducted using cement sheath without pre-stress and cement system representing uniform volume shrinkage and presence micro-annulus.
For constant wellbore pressure, the radial stresses observed in all three types of cement system were practically similar and decreased as pre-stress was increased. Hoop stress also reduced with increase in compressive pre-load. However, their absolute values were distinct for different cement types. These results indicate that cement system with compressive pre-load can notably reduce the risk of radial crack failure by providing compensatory compressive stress. However, on the contrary, the maximum shear stress developed at cement-pipe interface, increased because of pre-load. This can compromise the mechanical integrity by reducing the safety margin on shear failure. Thus, the selection of expansive cement should be made after carefully weighing reduced risk of radial failure/debonding against the increased risks of shear failure.
This paper provides novel information on expanding cement from the perspective of mechanical stresses and integrity. Modelling approach discussed in this work, can be used to estimate amount of pre-stress required for a selected cement system under anticipated wellbore loads.
Cement is a key element for successful drilling and completing of a well. From oil and gas wells to geothermal applications, cement is a major material ensuring zonal isolation. With an increase in global energy needs and an expected uptick in drilling and plugging and abandonment activities, evaluating and understanding cement properties is crucial, since these properties are used in various engineering designs and calculations. The objective of this paper is to present how Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) can be used to understand the cement hydration process and the development of key properties such as strength and porosity. NMR applications for cement include determination of porosity, water interactions, identification of hydration stages and C-S-H gel development with curing time. Since water is present in all cement slurries, NMR can potentially help to understand microstructural changes in cement during curing. Data from more than 600 cement specimens cured for more than a year are compiled. Standard cement properties such as UCS (unconfined compressive strength) are compared with NMR responses. In this paper, we document cement hydration and porosity changes through NMR measurements in samples with five different recipes. Our study also confirms a strong correlation between NMR response and cement strength.
Primary cementing operations rank among the more important events that occur during a well's lifetime. The cement sheath plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining zonal isolation in the well, supporting the casing and preventing external casing corrosion.
For many years, the industry has employed strategies to promote optimal cement placement results. These strategies, collectively known in the industry as good cementing practices. Job execution is the key to insure success of the job based on the designed.
New technology that give us optimum execution evaluation (OEE) has been developed to enhance cement job execution by overlapping the design parameter over with the execution parameter real time. The OEE technology significantly improves cementing operations, enabling operators to monitor, control, and evaluate cement placement in real time. OEE combines job design data with acquisition data from both the rig and the cementing equipment to provide a more accurate representation of the job as it is being run.
In this paper, we present the process that we completed with detailed operational setup to allow us to monitor and record all parameters related to the cement job execution and the work flow implemented to be able to evaluate the cement job design and execution to achieve the required objectives. This study is also setting the basis to establish development of real time automated cementing advisory system.
Wang, Gang (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Fan, Honghai (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Zhang, Wei (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Limited) | Yang, Yang (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Han, Zili (CNPC Bohai Drilling Engineering Company Ltd.) | Wu, Hongxuan (CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company Ltd.) | Li, Wanjun (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Limited) | Li, Jiaying (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Limited) | Zhou, Tuo (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Limited) | Zhou, Haiqiu (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Limited) | Liu, Jitong (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Limited)
M15 well contains complex intervals, where anticlinal structures developed from faults make long mudstone barriers full of cracks, which makes it hard to predict pore pressure. Loss is one of the most serious problems during drilling and cementing, while blow out accidents happen sometimes. Previous casing programs hardly adjust to all complex intervals and conventional LCMs (loss control materials) play few roles. As a result, designated targets used to be rarely reached.
It is proved that low pressure intervals shall be isolated firmly and complex intervals as well as reservoirs should be developed in independent intervals, thus casing programs have been modified. 188 lab tests were finalized, including 180°C hot rolling, anti-contamination test, lubricity test and inhibition experiments, in order to develop a kind of organic salt mud system that has premium inhibition, plugging, lubricating, heat & salt resistance properties. Precise MPD (managed pressure drilling) techniques are recommended to achieve near-balance drilling operation, solving borehole instability problems to some extent.
In the second interval the organic salt mud system is applied, while logging and casing running may be accomplished in one time. Besides, strings can be tripped out smoothly and high pressure brine productive zones are drilled safely. φ339.7mm casing joints are set at the depth of 3848m in the second interval and φ244.5mm casing joints are set at the depth of 5177m in the third interval, in order that deeper complex formation may be developed in a separate casing interval in which precise MPD is applied with LCMs while drilling and compound plugging agents. Therefore, downhole pressure is precisely controlled and large cracks are plugged statically on 28 occasions. Designated targets have been all reached and 20 oil & gas productive layers have been developed.
Downhole complexities arising from loss and blowout have been solved in M15, where φ339.7mm casing was set at the deepest interval in CNPC overseas operation history, making a new record of safe drilling operation, borehole quality and cementing quality. More oil and gas productive zones have been discovered and all designated targets have been achieved. New drilling experience got from M15 has significant meanings in the development of similar blocks.
The success of a pilot milling operation is dependent on the mill design, adherence to correct milling parameters and precise location of stabilizing members in the bottomhole assembly (BHA), especially while milling through large casings such as 20 inch inside 30 inch conductor. This paper discusses the importance of correct mill design and stabilization of the BHA, along with field results from milling with under-gauged mill and stabilizers.
Pilot milling interventions to facilitate open-hole side-tracking can be very effective and cost-efficient, especially in cases where retaining the original borehole size is necessary for further workover operations, for example, when liner is milled for this purpose. Pilot milling is a suitable option where sidetracking with a whipstock is not viable, as when casing has collapsed, with internal diameter restrictions, or situations where irreparable surface damage to conductor pipe and casing have occurred due to corrosion. Such situations might result in losing an offshore platform slot, which is a huge cost to operators.
One such situation was encountered where 30 inch conductor pipe parted at the water line due to corrosion. Prolonged exposure to corrosion further led to 20 inch casing parting at the water line as well. Surface repairs were attempted but were unable to arrest annulus leakage. In order to recover the slot, an improved and specially designed pilot mill was used. A stabilized milling bottom-hole assembly with precise sizes and locations of stabilizers was incorporated. This new mill design resulted in milling 585.6 feet of 20 inch casing with an average rate of penetration (ROP) of 2.6 ft/hr. The new mill design resulted in good mill life and only two mill runs were made in the entire milling operation. Results of torque and drag simulations to study the bending stresses and torsional stresses on mill string components while milling are discussed. Catastrophic effects of using under-gauged mill and stabilizers were also examined.
This improved mill and stabilized bottom-hole assembly design offers optimum ROP, improved mill life, reduced surface vibrations and a fine metal cutting structure that eases metal debris handling at surface.
Krishna Godavari Offshore Block has reservoir temperatures of 420 degF and 12,500 psi of bottom hole pressures, field's HPHT rating is a concern moreover other challenges like the wells are complex in terms of depths, profile, high drift, reservoir with heterogeneity, formation pressure variation. The paper discusses challenges during well planning and their execution with adequate methods to successfully drill and case well with less than 15 % NPT.
In harsh environment of KG Basin, HPHT wells encroach on limits of equipment, leaving little margin for error, resulting in increased risk of rapid gas migration, equipment integrity failure, operating limits of tool. The paper discusses use of RSS-Vortex, 200 degC rated MWD tools, NRDPP, modified casing design, reduction in impact of side forces and high torques, optimized bit design, drill pipe cutting tool, reduction of differential sticking to execute the drilling of well within given time. The case study discusses longest 5 7/8" section drilled in an unconventional casing design under HPHT environment in India.
The paper also discusses the unexpected results and observations obtained during execution of program and the lessons learnt from it. Some drilling methods such as first application of RSS-Vortex in a HPHT environment in India has considerably enhanced the ROP by 100% and also significantly reduced casing wear of production casing by 55 %, use of 200 deg C rated MWD tools has increased the robustness of the drilling BHA resulting in minimizing additional BHA trips due to tool failures. The reservoir section drilling has been optimized to 3 bit trips from 9-13 trips done in offset wells. Use of NRDPP's made drilling of high drifted wells easier and maintenance of surface torque within limits had considerably reduced lost production time and ensured safe operation. The improvisation carried out for bit design and casing design has also saved rig days and cost. The new casing design avoids liner tie back which has resulted saving of 7 days of rig time. The use of effective micronized barite OBM system with controlled measures on HTHP fluid loss has maintained good balance between rheology and fluid loss to prevent differential sticking. The downhole tool failure and stick-slip was reduced by 50% by modulating the Variable frequency drive and choosing adequate bit.
These methods and practices require further optimization to enhance the usability. The established methods discussed have created good drilling practices in HPHT environment for KG field and has reduced the drilling NPT levels. Such a huge transformation in reducing the NPT is very significant in HPHT conditions and many of the practices can be standardized for such operations.
Wellbore integrity is very critical in oil and gas industry and needs to be maintained through the entire cycle of well's life. The most important item for well integrity is to set cement between two casings or between casing and formation. A good cement job provides isolation and protection for the well and a poor cement job can have cracks and allows corrosive fluids to migrate through micro channels.
Downhole casing repair is a common workover operations worldwide, especially in wells that have been producing over number of years. It is very challenging to control corrosive fluid migration which slowly corrodes casing and tubing over time. An innovative epoxy resin formulations has been developed and tested in the field to repair casing leaks which is extremely easy to handle and very economical. A cost-effective workover program can be developed and implemented depending on the severity of the leak.
The improved approach of using innovative resin can be used by mixing with cement blends to repair major casing damage and can also be used as standalone application to fix minor leaks. The system maintains extremely good rheological properties even when mixed with cement. The system has ability to withstand high differential pressure and is also resistant to acid, salts, hydrocarbons and most importantly various corrosive liquids. The precise application is determined by measuring the injectivity of the well. In the low injectivity wells, only epoxy resin solution will be spotted and repair the damaged casing. In the high injectivity wells, the chemical will be mixed with cement and completely seal the damaged zone. The chemical will enhance the mechanical properties of the cement and will be more resilient to extreme down-hole condition.
The paper will emphasize the added value and potential of the method in restoring the casing integrity. The paper will also discuss the laboratory test reports and application which will highlight effective and economical outcome.
Lau, Chee Hen (Schlumberger) | Duong, Anh (Schlumberger) | Taoutaou, Salim (Schlumberger) | Kumar, Avinash Kishore (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Ahmad, Khairunnisa Bt Abg (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Jain, Pankaj (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Amin, Remy Azrai M (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Toha, Rozaidi (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.)
In 2018, an operator in Malaysia completed a sidetrack campaign consisting of injector wells. These wells were planned for maximum productivity via sustainable wellbore zonal isolation. The presence of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in these wells elevated concern about the zonal isolation of cement across the interval. Moreover, for an injector well, the cement must exhibit resilient properties by design of enhanced mechanical properties to provide long-term isolation based on a cyclic wellbore. An advanced slurry system was designed that enabled the set cement to manifest superior properties in three parameters—corrosion resistance against CO2, flexibility against wellbore stress changes, and expansion to mitigate microannuli.
The design of the slag-based flexible cement system with expanding additive (slag-flex) considered all three parameters in the fit-for-purpose application of a resilient and flexible expansive cement system in a CO2-rich well. The system’s mechanical properties, such as Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, and tensile strength, were verified with laboratory-scale testing and validation against stress analysis software to confirm on the resilient and flexible properties. The laboratory testing result demonstrated the improved properties of the system, including high tensile strength and low Young’s modulus. Furthermore, the reduced water content of the system decreases the permeability of set cement and thus increases resistance towards corrosive substance such as CO2.
For certain cases in the past, two separate slurry systems had to be designed—a lead slurry with CO2-resistant properties and a tail slurry with flexible and resilient properties. Often, several issues arose from this practice, including complex logistics due to cement silo blend arrangement and complexity during job execution. Hence, this new system presents a novel idea and methodology that will deliver value to the oilfield industry by integrating CO2 resistance, flexibility and expansion properties in a single slurry system.
The system was successfully pumped in wells in Malaysia; no sustained casing pressure has been recorded to date, and wells have been delivered to their intended zonal isolation requirements without compromising well design and overall integrity. This is an innovative application of this type of cement system in the region, and the long-term zonal isolation and well integrity assurance in these and future wells have the potential to save millions of dollars in remedial work. The cement system is currently recognized as the default technology for CO2-rich injector wells in Malaysia.
The goal was to search for a replacement of CaCl2 which presents the most widely used accelerator for oil well cement used in cold and arctic environments and sometimes in deepwater drilling. For this purpose, novel calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) nanoparticles were synthesized and tested. The C-S-H was synthesized by the precipitation method in an aqueous solution of polycarboxylate (PCE) comb polymer which is widely used as concrete superplasticizer. The resulting C-S-H-PCE suspension was tested in the UCA instrument as seeding material to initiate the crystallization of cement and thus accelerate cement hydration as well as shorten the thickening time at low temperature. It was found that in PCE solution, C-S-H precipitates first as nano-sized droplets (Ø ~20 - 50 nm) exhibiting a PCE shell. Following a rare, non-classical nucleation mechanism, the globules convert slowly to nanofoils (HR TEM images: l ~ 50 nm, d ~ 5 nm) which present excellent seeding materials for the formation of C-S-H from the silicate phases C3S/C2S present in cement. Thickening time tests performed at + 4 °C in an atmospheric consistometer revealed stronger acceleration than from CaCl2 while very low slurry viscosity was maintained, as was evidenced from rheological measurements. Accelerated strength development was checked on UCA cured at + 4 °C and under pressure, especially the wait on cement time was significantly reduced. Furthermore, combinations of C-S-H-PCE and HEC as well as an ATBS-based sulfonated fluid loss polymer were tested. It was found that this C-S-H- based nanocomposite is fully compatible with these additives. The novel accelerator based on a C-S-H-PCE nanocomposite solves the problems generally associated with CaCl2, namely undesired viscosity increase, poor compatibility with other additives and corrosiveness against steel pipes and casing.