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Africa (Sub-Sahara) Sahara Group discovered hydrocarbons in three wells drilled in Block OPL 274, located onshore in Nigeria's Edo State. Olugei-1 was drilled to a measured depth of 4537 m and encountered five hydrocarbon zones, with 33 m of net pay. Oki-Oziengbe South 4 was drilled to a measured depth of 3816 m and encountered 64.3 m of net pay in 13 hydrocarbon-bearing zones. Oki-Oziengbe South 5 was drilled to a measured depth of 3923 m and encountered 91 m of net pay in 19 reservoirs. Sahara Group (100%) is the operator. Asia Pacific Sino Gas & Energy Holdings (SGE) flowed gas (coalbed methane) from its first horizontal well in the Linxing production sharing contract (PSC) in China's Shanxi province.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Bowleven said that its extended flow test program at the Moambe and Zingana wells on the Bomono Permit onshore Cameroon is complete. The company said that the results to date continue to support its plans for an initial supply of between 5 MMscf/D and 6 MMscf/D of natural gas for power generation, under a development program established with partners Actis and Eneo. The initial program focuses on production from the shallower gas-prone sands on the permit. Bowleven has a 100% equity interest in the permit. Eni started production from the West Hub development project's Mpungi field in Block 15/06 offshore Angola. The startup follows the project's first oil from the Sangos field in November 2014 and the Cinguvu field last April.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Tullow Oil announced in mid-August that first oil has flowed from the Tweneboa, Enyenra, and Ntomme (TEN) fields offshore Ghana, which was on time and on budget for the project's development plan approved by the government in May 2013. The company expects oil output to ramp up gradually through the rest of the year toward a production facility capacity of 80,000 B/D. Tullow is the operator of the TEN fields with a 47.18% stake. Its joint-venture partners are Anadarko (17%), Kosmos Energy (17%), Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (15%), and PetroSA (3.82%). Asia Pacific Rosneft has made a discovery at the PLDD well in the Wild Orchid gas condensate field in Block 06.1 of the Nam Con Son Basin offshore Vietnam. The discovery is being evaluated for the volume of reserves and commercial attractiveness, and there is a potential synergy with the nearby Rosneft-operated Lan Tay production platform, the company said.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Eni started production from the West Hub development project's Mpungi field in Block 15/06 offshore Angola. The startup follows the project's first oil from the Sangos field in November 2014 and the Cinguvu field last April. Mpungi will ramp up West Hub oil production to 100,000 B/D in the first quarter from a previous level of 60,000 B/D. The project also includes the future development of the Mpungi North, Ochigufu, and Vandumbu fields. Eni is the block operator with a 36.84% stake. Sonangol (36.84%) and SSI Fifteen (26.32%) hold the other stakes.
The one-circulation method is a well-control procedure. To implement this method certain guidelines must be followed to ensure a safe kick-killing exercise. Although the procedure is relatively simple, its mastery demands basic knowledge of the practical steps taken during the process. A kill sheet is normally used during conventional operations. It contains prerecorded data, formulas for the various calculations, and a graph--or other means--for determining the required pressures on the drillpipe as the kill mud is pumped.
A gas facility encompasses the equipment between the gas wells and the pipeline or other transportation method. The purpose of the gas facility is to remove impurities and contaminants from the gas, remove liquids and solids, and prepare the gas to meet the sales requirements of the purchaser. Figure 1 is a block diagram of a simple gas facility. Each of the main blocks is described here. The gas must be treated for sales or disposal.
Drilling equipment that is beyond the scope of the contractor-furnished items is almost always required to drill a well. These items must be rented at the expense of the contractor or operator, depending on the provisions of the contract. Regardless of which party is incurring the direct expense, rental equipment should be included in the authority for expenditure (AFE) for the well. These items can represent a substantial sum in deep, high-pressure wells. Drilling contractors usually furnish BOPs, chokes, choke manifolds, and, in some cases, atmospheric degasser units.
The industry is encouraging the adoption of automation to improve safety, consistency, and efficiency. This paper presents a case study of the first deployment of a drilling automation platform fully integrated with a managed pressure drilling (MPD) system on Argentina drilling operations. Data collected throughout execution of the project, including human factors, and field operational data are used to evaluate the success of the project. This paper also presents challenges and lessons learned to aid in future deployments of these systems in the Latin America region.
The Vigdis Booster station project was sanctioned in November 2018. It is the first project in Equinor’ s project portfolio which has implemented the standardization principles for subsea booster stations.
The Vigdis Subsea Bosting System (North Sea) is currently in execution. This will be the first multiphase boosting system with all electric control system and in addition we are also producing to and controlling the system from two different hosts. The pump is using the new HV motor, simplifying and reducing costs of the system.
The boosting system will comprise of a foundation structure with trawl protection, a manifold module for connection to flow lines, a boosting pump module and an umbilical termination assembly.
Production on the Vigdis Field is currently limited by the capacity in the production lines and pressure drop across the topside chokes. Reservoir deliverability is limited by low reservoir pressure in some parts of the field, together with increasing water cut, leading to reduced energy into the system i.e. dropping wellhead pressures. Pressure support for the reservoirs is provided by the aquifers and by water injection.
OneSubsea's scope is to engineer, procure and construct (EPC) a Pump Station including a Manifold Foundation and Protection structure and a Pump System including topside equipment, umbilical and the pump module. The Vigdis Booster Station (VBS) will be tied into the LP and HP-lines from Vigdis B template to Snorre A (SNA) unit. In addition, the production from H template will be tied in as well as provisions for tie-in of a future prospect.
Power to the booster station will be supplied from Snorre B (SNB) via an 18 km power umbilical being hung off from a slot on the existing riser balcony at the south east corner of installation.
The solution is based on an All-Electric control system eliminating need for hydraulic lines for control. Another feature in the Vigdis subsea pump solution is to apply an 8.7 KV HV motor and thereby eliminate the need for subsea transformer and reducing investment cost benchmarked to similar subsea projects.
The Appomattox asset, which currently has an expected production of 175,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d), is a floating production system fed by several subsea production drill centers in the Gulf of Mexico, located in blocks MC437, 348, and 391-393. As the focus on in-situ leak detection has grown, two leak detection systems were implemented at Appomattox. Each uses an entirely different methodology for leak detection.
The Conditional Rate of Change (C-ROC) algorithm resides in the production control system and uses existing subsea pressure sensors. This algorithm was developed by Shell and is detailed in separate publications. Developed in parallel to the Appomattox project, C-ROC was added to the project later in the project lifecycle as it has become the Shell Gulf of Mexico standard for leak detection. In addition to the C-ROC method, each of the production drill centers has an Acoustic Leak Detector (ALD), provided by Naxys AS, a Baker Hughes business. These units are being piloted by Shell for the Gulf of Mexico. The ALD acoustically monitors the production manifold, wells, and associated flowline hardware at each drill center. The system is designed to distinguish the difference between background noise and actual leaks.
Implementation of each of these technologies leverage several other novel technologies and uses of existing technologies at Appomattox, including high bandwidth communications to support ALD and high-fidelity process simulation to both validate and train operations staff on the C-ROC algorithm.
This paper provides an overview of each leak detection system, details the technologies leveraged to implement these systems, and relates the project experiences thus far with each method.