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Lv, Qichao (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Zhou, Tongke (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Zhang, Xing (Sinopec Shengli Oilfield Company, Dongying) | Guo, Xinshu (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Dong, Zhaoxia (China University of Petroleum, Beijing)
Abstract CO2 foams have been used for a long time for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. Note that conventional CO2 foam focuses on mobility control and storage of bare CO2. However, this technology has suffered from low storage efficiency and EOR because of foam instability. In this study, the geological storage of CO2 and coal fly ash (CFA) using Pickering foam for EOR was explored. The aim is to obtain an inexpensive method for EOR and storage of greenhouse gases and atmospheric pollutants. The Pickering foam was prepared using Waring blender method. The experiments were conducted to evaluate CO2/liquid interface enhancement by measuring the interfacial tension and interfacial viscoelastic modulus. As per the heterogeneous sandpack flooding experiments, the profile control capacity and the performance of oil displacement using CO2 foam enhanced by CFA were investigated. The amount of storage from dynamic aspects of CO2 and CFA was measured to demonstrate the storage law. The stability of aqueous foam was improved significantly after the addition of CFA. The half-life time of foam stabilized by CFA particles increased by more than about 11 times than that of foam without CFA particles. The interfacial dilatational viscoelastic modulus of CO2/foaming solution increased with CFA particle concentration increasing, indicating the interface transformed from liquid-like to solid-like. Flooding experiments in heterogeneous porous media showed that more produced fluid was displaced from the relatively low-permeability sandpack after the injection of CO2 foam with CFA. The oil recovery by CFA stabilized foam was improved by ~28.3% than that of foam without CFA particles. And the sequestration of CO2 in heterogeneous porous media was enhanced with the addition of CFA to CO2 foam, and the CFA stabilized foam displayed a strong resistance to water erosion for the storage of CO2 and CFA. This work introduces a win–win method for EOR and storage of CO2 and atmospheric pollutant particles. CFA from coal combustion was used as an enhancer for CO2 foam, which improved the interfacial dilatational viscoelasticity of foam film and the dynamic storage of CO2. Furthermore, the storage of CO2 and CFA contributed to improvement in sweep efficiency, and thus EOR.
Abstract CO2 storage and sequestration are regarded as an effective approach to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. While injecting an enormous amount of CO2 into carbonate–rich aquifers, CO2 dissolves in the formation brine under the large pressure, and the subsequently formed CO2–enriched brine reacts with the calcite. Reaction–induced changes in pore structure and fracture geometry alter the porosity and permeability, giving rise to concerns of CO2storage capacity and security. Especially in the reservoir or aquifer with natural fractures, the fractures provide a highly permeable pathways for fluid flow. This study aims to analyze the acid–rock interaction and subsequent permeability evolution in the systems with complex fracture configurations during CO2 injection by implementing a pore–scale DBS reactive transport model. The model has been developed by expanding the functionality of OpenFOAM, which is an open–source code for computational fluid dynamics. A series of partial differential equations are discretized by applying the Finite Volume Method (FVM) and sequentially solved. Different fracture configurations in terms of fracture length, density, connection, and mineral components have been considered to investigate their impacts on the dynamic porosity–permeability relationship, dissolution rate, and reactant transport characteristics during CO2 storage. The investigation revealed several interesting findings. We found that calcium (Ca) concentration was low in the poorly connected area at the initial time. As CO2–enriched brine saturated the system and reacted with calcite, Ca started being accumulated in the system. However, Ca barely flowed out of the poor–connected area, and the concentration became high. Lengths of branches mainly influenced the dissolution rates, while they had slight impacts on the porosity–permeability relationship. While fracture connectivity had an apparent influence on the porosity–permeability relationship, it showed a weak relevance on the dissolution rate. These microscopic insights can help enhance the CO2 sealing capacity and guarantee environmental security.
The US House Science Committee has sent letters to the chief executives of 10 major oil companies requesting additional data disclosure regarding emissions of methane from the nation's top onshore oil and gas producing region. Lawmakers are concerned that the technology being used by the oil industry to detect methane leak emissions isn't up to the task and may need additional government participation and oversight. The request comes in the shadow of last month's United Nations climate summit (COP26) in Glasgow, Scotland, where more than 100 other countries have pledged to cut emissions by 30% by the end of the decade. The Committee is targeting the Permian Basin of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The letter cites a recent peer-reviewed study that concluded "the Permian Basin is likely the largest observed methane-emitting [oil and gas] basin in the United States."
Cemvita Factory is a Houston-based startup that has developed a suite of bioengineered microorganisms to convert carbon dioxide into chemical feedstocks. The company recently crossed a major milestone after announcing that its Series A investment round in October put its total cash raised to date over $10 million. This latest fundraising was led by Energy Capital Ventures and 8090 Partners but also included the venture arms of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Occidental Petroleum (Oxy), the latter of which made its first equity investment in Cemvita Factory in 2019. The company's CEO and cofounder, Moji Karimi, holds degrees in drilling and petroleum engineering and previously worked with Weatherford International and for reservoir diagnostics firm Biota Technology. He has been an advocate for revamping the oil and gas industry's approach to innovation.
Summary Storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in depleted gas reservoirs or large aquifers is one of the available solutions to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Numerical modeling of these processes requires the use of large geological models with several orders of magnitude of variations in the porous media properties. Moreover, modeling the injection of highly concentrated and cold CO2 in large reservoirs with the correct physics introduces numerical challenges that conventional reservoir simulators cannot handle. We propose a thermal formulation based on a full equation of state (EoS) formalism to model pure CO2 and CO2 mixtures with the residual gas of depleted reservoirs. Most of the reservoir simulators model the phase equilibriums with a pressure-temperature-based formulation. With this usual framework, it is not possible to exhibit two phases with pure CO2 contents. Moreover, in this classical framework, the crossing of the phase envelope is associated with a large discontinuity in the enthalpy computation, which can prevent the convergence of the energy conservation equation. In this work, accurate and continuous phase properties are obtained, basing our formulation on enthalpy as a primary variable. We first implement a new phase-split algorithm with input variables as pressure and enthalpy instead of the usual pressure and temperature, and we validate it on several test cases. This algorithm can model situations in which the mixture can change rapidly from one phase to the other at constant pressure and temperature. Then, treating enthalpy instead of temperature as a primary variable in both the reservoir and the well modeling algorithms, our reservoir simulator can model situations with pure or near pure components, as well as crossing of the phase envelope that usual formulations implemented in reservoir simulators cannot handle. We first validate our new formulation against the usual formulation on a problem in which both formulations can correctly represent the physics. Then, we show situations in which the usual formulations fail to represent the correct physics and that are simulated well with our new formulation. Finally, we apply our new model for the simulation of pure and cold CO2 injection in a real depleted gas reservoir from the Netherlands.
The world's recovery from the pandemic is still fragile. Progress has been made in global vaccinations with 7.3 billion doses administrated by early November (51% of the world's population having received at least one dose of vaccine). However, there is a huge disparity between countries such as the UAE, which is leading with more than 98% of its population vaccinated, compared to some African countries with less than 2% coverage. We are also seeing the emergence of a fifth wave of COVID-19 cases in the Northern Hemisphere, possibly because of the loosening of protection requirements. On the positive side, people's mobility patterns have nearly recovered for land transportation.
COP26 concluded with mixed results. It was the first formal opportunity since the 2015 Paris Agreement for countries to revise their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) for the 2030 targets and to offer long-term greenhouse-gas reduction strategies to 2050. Early indications suggest that if the pledges covering about 90% of global emissions are followed by action and completed in full and on time, a temperature increase of around 1.8 C to 2.1 C by 2100 could be seen. But without stronger actions taken to 2030, the temperature will likely be higher, according to IPIECA. The Paris Agreement set a global framework "to avoid dangerous climate change by limiting global warming to well below 2 C and pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5 C. It also aims to strengthen countries' ability to deal with the impacts of climate change and support them in their efforts."
Abstract Quality data is essential for calculations of expected leakage in wells post Permanent Plug and Abandonment (PP&A). Such data may come from surveys studying hydrocarbon leakage to the marine environment. However, recent literature suggests that current regulatory practices for environmental surveys are suboptimal, giving reason to question the assumption that wells have experienced zero leakage from the deep reservoir post PP&A on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS). We investigate whether such an assumption is credible. The credibility of the assumption of zero leakages is investigated through a review of literature addressing the integrity of wells post PP&A on the NCS, with particular emphasis on a 2021 report from the Norwegian Environmental Agency (NEA). Based on the review, the strength of knowledge supporting the assumption that no wells on the NCS have experienced leakages from their deep reservoirs is discussed. The implications of the uncertainty associated with the assumption of zero leakage on the NCS, the rationale for collecting more relevant data, and how these data may be obtained is also discussed in brief. The NEA report details the current regulatory practice for environmental surveys on the NCS. This regulatory practice, as it is described in the NEA report, give limited support to a zero leakage assumption. Norwegian regulations require two environmental surveys post Cessation of Production (CoP). These surveys may however occur in the period between CoP and PP&A, and the closest test stations are generally located 250 meters from the wells. Environmental surveys carried out that far from the well, and possibly prior to PP&A, influence data quality. We argue that the environmental survey data claiming zero leakage, lack sufficient evidence. Thus, based on the reviewed literature outlining the current environmental survey practice, although PP&A well design on the NCS should build on sound principles, we are not able to conclude on the assumption of zero leakage. The interest in risk-based PP&A approaches is increasing globally, and risk-based approaches rely on credible leakage calculations. The failure rates used in these leakage calculations should be based on quality data. The NEA report and other literature indicate that the quality of post PP&A leakage data on the NCS is questionable, and in some cases the data are non-existent. The paper includes suggestions on how to improve the regulatory practice related to environmental surveys.
Abstract The oil and gas industries are setting a new achievement every day by fulfilling the energy security of almost all the nations. With the continuous rise in the demand of a hydrocarbon, industries are facing many new challenges while fulfilling it. One of the major concerns is the safety of an environment and safety of working professionals that HSE Department is continuously focused in. The industry has been in continuous upgradation since its inception to counter all the challenges. Inverted Umbrella Technique (IUT) is the recent innovation in the industry and this could be further more conceptualized by adding its role into the energy industries. This could turn out as a major breakthrough in the oil and gas domain from HSE perspective. The paper here aimed for providing efficient solution by setting up the system that could help us to drawdown the rising concern in the safety of the environment. Inverted Umbrella Technique (IUT) could roll down the new horizons for the offshore productions system in oil and gas industries. The concept is focused on the minimal loss of methane during exploitation of gas hydrates as well as focused on the prevention of oil spill and reducing the damage that blowout of oil or gas well can make to the environment while making sure that industries do not suffer any kind of major capital loss and making it safe for industries to not face many health, safety, and environment (HSE) norms that are decided by the government and most important is, it will help us to create a safe environment for aquatic species living around the offshore platform and nearby.
Abstract This paper aims to share the collaboration efforts of Malaysia's governing body for Upstream oil & gas industry with various stakeholders to enhance decommissioning in Malaysia. By virtue of Section of the Petroleum Development Act 1974, Petroliam Nasional Berhad (PETRONAS) ("PETRONAS") is vested with the entire ownership in, and the exclusive rights, powers, liberties and privileges of exploring, exploiting, winning and obtaining petroleum lying onshore or offshore of Malaysia. MPM manages the decommissioning liabilities for all Upstream petroleum facilities in Malaysia, specifically to strategize, regulate, promote, and drive decommissioning execution that is safe, cost-effective and brings the best benefit to the environment. Due to the shift in the industry with uncertainties in the long-term crude oil prices, depleting reserves, and operating cost challenges, it has made this non-revenue generating activity unavoidable. Thus, it is crucial to drive down decommissioning costs while protecting the environment. To achieve this objective, one of the focused initiatives pursued by MPM is through collaborations with relevant stakeholders such as industry players, upstream operators, government bodies, and academia. Such collaborations were found to be the fastest way to develop innovative solutions whereby the collaborators work together to achieve a common goal. Collaborations were done through, among others, constant and systematic engagements, workshops, brainstorming sessions, etc. A notable example would be in 2017, MPM successfully entered into a Memorandum of Understanding ("MOUs") with the Department of Fisheries ("DOF"), Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery Industry on rigs-to-reef. In 2020, MPM had successfully conducted a series of virtual workshops to capture decommissioning enhancement areas and lessons learnt with Operators and decommissioning contractors based on real-life experiences and past projects in Malaysia. A total of 115 enhancements areas were captured for consideration. Beyond these two items, MPM had successfully collaborated with many other stakeholders related to decommissioning and will continue to explore more collaborations in the future to support decommissioning in Malaysia. Details of these collaborations will be shared as part of this presentation. There were great experiences and important lessons that PETRONAS had learnt from these collaborations. PETRONAS believes that the culture of sharing experiences and lessons learnt will be the epitome for Operators and Contractors to work safely, stimulate creativity and strive towards decommissioning cost compression for every decommissioning project.