We believe our prime responsibility is to protect the environment by utilizing the energy in a responsible way and also by reducing the wastage of energy. Energy conservation will play a vital role in climate change and leave our planet pristine for the next generations to come. In light of our Company's ambitious vision of reducing energy consumption and losses and to conserve energy without disturbing the regular business of the Company, we have started to evaluate all the options to conserve the energy by incorporating the latest technologies, conducting awareness programs and optimizing the energy consumption. In line with our objectives, we conducted a study on one of the existing office building to check all the possibility of reducing energy consumption without disturbing the regular activity. At the end, we realised that the simple and easy way to conserve Energy is through conducting an Energy Audit and implementing Energy Audit recommendations.
Over 70% of South Australia's demand today is supplied from renewable energy sources and is forecast to reach 100% by 2025, 7 years ahead of schedule. Large industries such as oil and gas have also transformed their vision to ensure utilization of renewable energy sources to provide a cost effective, clean and reliable day to day operations. This paper will therefore present a case study where renewable energy became the enabler for clean oil extraction and economic growth more broadly.
Renewable energy technologies have been at the forefront amongst South Australia's commercial and residential consumers. Large industries such as oil and gas have committed to green, clean methodologies to support their operations when extracting crude oil from wells. The use of solar and battery storage has presented an obvious solution given the proof and reliability of the technology to enable a reduction in carbon emissions and cost while extracting resources from deep wells. A pilot renewable energy off-grid project was successfully completed in South Australia and has proven successful which has now resulted in significant funding being allocated to convert an additional 56 sites.
The successful trial conducted in the State of South Australia allowed for oil pumps to be powered 100% using renewable energy which resulted in a reduction of CO2 emissions and operational costs incurred from the supply and transfer of fuel to the pumps. It is estimated that the adoption of renewable energy for oil extraction will result in an approximate saving of 140 barrels of oil per day which is currently used to fuel pumps and generators at these remote sites. Assuming an average price market of $50 (US) per barrel, this equates to $2.25m (US) per day with consideration to approximately 10% unavailability due to maintenance. The forecast saving of $2.25m (US) is intentionally calculated using market value to reinforce the potential additional revenue to be had from savings on oil consumption during the crude oil extraction process.
In addition to the above forecast savings, a further $70,000 (US) per annum could be saved purely from the use of diesel generators currently being used to supply pumps, this assumes the cost per generator is $190 (US) per day for operations excluding maintenance costs and associated overheads.
With the above in mind and the successful trials under way in Australia, there are a further 208 pumps which are currently in scope across the continent to be converted in an effort to reduce production costs, emissions and ensure a low maintenance operational strategy is in place as well as a low carbon strategy. (Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA), 2019).
The financial savings above are forecast to increase with decreased requirements for high cost operational maintenance when compared to conventional sources being used to date in the oil industry.
When considering the financial viability of renewable energy solutions, in addition to the environmental and social benefits, it has been determined that for a single oil pump, the forecast payback period on investments made does not exceed 4 years.
Considering solar systems have a lifespan of 25 years, this means that the remaining operating of solar panels, that is in excess of 20 years will be solely revenue generating years. Taking also into account the 25 years of running for both systems, conventional vs. renewable energy, the forecast levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is $1.3 (US)/kWh vs. 14c (US)/kWh respectively.
This means over a 25-year period, with renewable energy it is forecast that the cost to maintain supply to oil pumps would be 10% of what it could be if conventional sources were used, notwithstanding the lack of electrical redundancy on site, associated maintenance costs and also the forecast reduction of carbon emissions per site.
By applying some of the analyses and key findings, it is necessary to see the oil and gas industries adopt renewable energy strategies to ensure low cost and reliable technologies for oil and gas productions and enable new opportunities for economic growth while ensuring continued commitment to address environmental and social challenges of tomorrow.
The traditional advantage of petroleum-based transport fuels of unmatched energy-density and affordability is diluted with the requirement to lower atmospheric carbon. However, despite a significant R&D effort and investment over the last three decades, humanity is still looking for carbon neutral alternatives to petroleum that can be commercially viable. This paper presents meaningful novel approaches to deal with carbon abatement utilizing petroleum that have a better chance to succeed in fulfilling the underlying techno-economic desirables.
While the multi-directional work performed in the past on the subject has informed us on a variety of related topics, going forward the society can benefit from a systematic approach to solving atmospheric CO2 problem building on the petroleum advantage. A framework formulating the challenge in terms of techno-economic and environmental requirements is presented that narrows down further work to only meaningful and promising leads. With this framework in mind a few specific pathways are proposed that naturally hold the desired traits if certain conditions are met. These conditions in turn define specific objectives of the subsequent developmental work. While it is premature to suggest any of these will develop into a commercially viable pragmatic method, due to the underlying criteria they hold a better chance to be successful. The presented pathways using advances in electro-chemistry, nanoscience, rational design, and other areas range from (a) mimicking natural fixation of CO2 as in plants to produce tailored polysaccharides or food, to (b) converting CO2 to substances such as carboxylic acids for easy and cost effective sequestration, to (c) changing the way petroleum fuel is used in internal combustion engines to alter the exit state of oxidation of carbon so that the waste product is easily and economically captured compared to the conventional waste product - CO2.
One outcome from the framework results in collapse of the economic models and associated technical approaches that aim to convert CO2 to sellable products, owing mainly to the volume of the global GHG challenge. On the other hand, a common element in the proposed promising leads is to deal with the problem of carbon abatement as an added step with an associated cost. The lower this cost, the less diluted the petroleum-advantage. In this context the framework also points to a range of relative costs that the carbon abatement approaches have to work within to retain the petroleum advantage.
The outlined technical approaches of carbon abatement are not previously discussed in the literature and hold the promise to help combat the global GHG challenge in a more practical and significant way.
Md Jalil, Abdullah Al Mubarak (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | Mat Isa, M Faudzi (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | Rostani, Khairul (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | Othman, Nurzatil Aqmar (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | M Shariff, Azmi (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS) | Lau, Kok Keong (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS) | Partoon, Behzad (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS) | Tay, Wee Horng (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS)
As easy gas resources around the world are depleting; high Carbon Dioxide (CO2) gas fields are thrust into the spotlight to become new candidates for field development. However, the presence of oftentimes sizable Carbon Dioxide contents in the gas reservoir (can be up to 80% volumetric) introduced a huge technical and economic challenges towards the field exploitation.
Over the last few years, several studies have been conducted on cryogenic technologies such as cryogenic distillation and supersonic nozzle in CO2 separation for fields containing more than 40% of CO2. Based on the studies, these new cryogenic technologies have shown to have high potential in separating CO2 from natural gas offshore to be utilized under carbon, capture, storage and utilization (CCUS) project.
The new cryogenic technologies are currently being tested for the proof of concept. Hence, a pilot plant, which is a scaled down version of the technology was developed. One of the major challenges faced during the pilot plant testing is the emergency depressurization philosophy as the process involves CO2 solids handling which is uncommon to the industry standard. Depressurization of high CO2 fluid at cryogenic temperature would lead to possibility of CO2 solids formation, hence potential blockage of process equipment and venting line.
Therefore, this paper will focus on the design of the pressure relieving system of such a facilities. It would also touched on the implementation of the pressure relieving system during the operation of the pilot tests and as well as the tests designed specially to test the pressure relieving system. Finally the paper would give a few proposals on improvements to be made to such system. It is also the ultimate aim of the authors and the team to introduce a new philosophy for Cryogenic CO2 Blowdown system to the process industry.
For the second YEPP event in 2005, Wim Turkenburg, Professor at the Copernicus Inst. of Sustainable Development and Innovation Science, Technology, and Society Div. of Utrecht U., gave a comprehensive lecture on CO2 emission reduction. Thirty-six young (and some more experienced) professionals of the E&P industry in The Hague and surrounding area attended. In 2001, fossil fuels made up almost 80% of our world's energy consumption, and CO2 emissions are related mainly to the consumption of fossil fuels. Because western countries cause 58.6% of global CO2 emissions and the emerging regions in Asia Pacific are rapidly gaining ground, those consumers should take the lead in reducing emissions and their adverse effect on global climate change, he said. Energy conservation and the use of renewables would lead to the largest drop in emissions, but CO2 recovery and storage remains a good number three on the list of methods that should be tried, he said.
Research Inst., came to Total's headquarters to present a lecture on how human activities are affecting the Earth's climate. Fifty people attended, both young professionals and more-experienced workers, to hear this French specialist who has studied the subject for 15 years. The Earth's climate is warming because of the greenhouse effect, he said. This physical phenomenon has been known since the 19th century, when scientists discovered infrared rays. At that time, Arrhenius predicted that a change in the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere would change the Earth's surface temperature.
Gardiner Hill, Group Environment Technology Manager with BP, spoke at the second event that the Aberdeen Emerging Leaders Program has organized with the SPE Aberdeen Section. Hill is also Chairman of the CO2 Capture Project, a Vice Chair of the European Union Technology Platform for Zero Emissions Fossil Fuel Power Plants, and Chairman of the Industry Assn. Attendance at the event was 130. Hill said that most scientists now acknowledge a direct link between the dramatic increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and the rise in global temperature. The Earth can absorb CO2 only at a limited rate, and to stabilize at the required atmospheric concentration of 550 ppm, emissions would have to drop to half their current value. And energy demand will double in the next 50 years.
The first SPE North American Young E&P Professionals Workshop was held in Keystone, Colorado, during 10–11 April. The event was attended by young E&P professionals from all over North America, including engineers (reservoir, facilities, drilling, completion, and production), sales representatives, land negotiators, and advisers from many companies. Participants from New Orleans to Calgary gathered to discuss their futures within the industry. Experienced members of the oil and gas industry also attended to present various topics that focused on how young professionals can guide their own careers and decide what their futures will hold regardless of industry cycles. The first day begin with an overview of industry statistics, including the staggering fact that approximately 60% of SPE members are age 45 or older.
If global temperatures rise more than 2ºC, the world is in for extreme weather events, more severe droughts, and floods; billions of lives will be affected. A report by the British economist Nicolas Stern shows that economies would not be safe, either. He calls upon governments to spend 1% of their national incomes on the mitigation of climate change, and says that for every Eurodollar that is spent now, it may prevent EUR 5 being spent on adaptation and reacting to climate-caused damage later this century. The Greenpeace "energy revolution" made by German aerospace laboratories shows that when energy is used in a smarter way and when clean energy sources are used to their full potential, climate change can be prevented. A study by the University of Rotterdam shows that this energy scenario could have positive effects on employment with the right policies. The report also shows that there are possible economic benefits to be gained for offshore technology, biomass logistics, energy-efficiency technologies, and solar panels if The Netherlands moves fast.
The SPE Bangalore young professionals (YPs) group conducted its first activity last June on the occasion of World Environment Day. A poster competition and an environmental workshop were organized as part of the event, which drew more than 50 YP participants from the Bangalore area. The poster competition received good response, with more than 20 posters submitted. During the environmental workshop, Nick West, Shell Technology India, Bangalore, gave an interesting talk about health, safety, security, and environmental practices, which can reduce fuel and energy waste in day-to-day life. He discussed the efforts of Al Gore to elevate awareness of the climate-change issue and seek measures to reduce global warming.