The present study provides a comprehensive set of new analytical expressions to help understand and quantify well interference due to competition for flow space between the hydraulic fractures of parent and child wells. Determination of the optimum fracture spacing is a key factor to improve the economic performance of unconventional oil and gas resources developed with multi-well pads. Analytical and numerical model results are combined in our study to identify, analyze, and visualize the streamline patterns near hydraulic fractures, using physical parameters that control the flow process, such as matrix permeability, hydraulic fracture dimensions and assuming infinite fracture conductivity. The algorithms provided can quantify the effect of changes in fracture spacing on the production performance of both parent and child wells. All results are based on benchmarked analytical methods which allow for fast computation, making use of Excel-based spreadsheets and Matlab-coded scripts. Such practical tools can support petroleum engineers in the planning of field development operations. The theory is presented with examples of its practical application using field data from parent and child wells in the Eagle Ford shale (Brazos County, East Texas). Based on our improved understanding of the mechanism and intensity of production interference, the fracture spacing (this study) and inter-well spacing (companion study) of multifractured horizontal laterals can be optimized to effectively stimulate the reservoir volume to increase the overall recovery factor and improve the economic performance of unconventional oil and gas properties.
The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of three horizontal infill wells in a mature field, of which one is completed with autonomous inflow control devices (AICDs). The analytic results are based on the comparison of oil production rates; water cut development and water-oil ratio plots of the wells. All the wells in this study are producing from the same homogeneous sandstone reservoir.
Two of the horizontal infill wells are targeting attic oil in an area with low risk of gas production of which one of these wells is completed with slotted liners and the other with AICDs. Both are artificially lifted with high rate electrical submersible pumps (ESPs). The third horizontal well was placed in an area with higher gas saturation, where a completion with casing, cementation and perforation was used. The performance of the horizontal wells is compared against each other.
The use of active geo-steering successfully supported the well placement into the "sweet spot" of the reservoir due to real-time well path adjustments.
It was found that the AICDs choke back a high amount of fluid and keep the water cut at a stable plateau level. This observation underlines the key benefit of using AICDs as when comparing to the other producing wells without AICDs, the water cut is steadily increasing.
Therefore the use of AICDs is a real option for horizontal well completion.
This paper will be useful to those who are in a phase of early well planning, e.g. in a field (re-)development project and have to select the best well concept (e.g. slotted liner vs. AICDs). AICDs have proven their value even in a super-mature oil field by improving production. Further advantages and challenges during operation are discussed in this paper.
The technical and economic successes of deep geothermal development rely on reducing drilling and completion risks. In the closely related oil and gas activities, the risk taken by the investors is balanced by the high reward that successful projects achieve by immensely offsetting the losses of the failed wellbores. Geothermal projects experience similar risks, however, the potential reward is limited by the competition with other energy sources, in a heavily regulated market. The economic acceptability of geothermal power generation requires low risk drilling and completion technologies that would work under many different geological conditions.
When wells are drilled into a petro-thermal formation, sometimes referred to as hot dry rock (HDR), there is normally no clear circulation path between these wells and when this path exists, the transmissivity is so low that no economical project is possible. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), in these circumstances is closer to reservoir creation than to conventional reservoir stimulation. Therefore, developing technologies that achieve the designed EGS size and transmissivity is vital to deep geothermal development.
The EGS becomes a viable proposition, when enough rock surface can be contacted by the geothermal fluid, and when the flow path runs smoothly through a sufficient rock volume to minimize the energy depletion and have the project running over a long period, compatible with a positive net present value (NPV). To that end, the well design and its completion system have to be engineered to maximize the chances of properly creating the EGS. In this paper, lessons learnt from past geothermal experience are reviewed and analysed to propose a multi-stage system as a mean of improving geothermal wells completion reliability. Current oil and gas (namely "unconventional") completion technologies related to multi-stage stimulation have been reviewed and different options are discussed in the scope of a deep geothermal hot dry rock project. While previous works conclude that technologies developed for oil and gas are readily available and applicable to deep geothermal projects and EGS (Gradl, 2018), this study shows that shortcomings exist and that further developments are necessary to reliably and economically complete EGS projects. The necessary tests before running different parts is also discussed. Other options for reservoir creation are debated with their potential benefits and associated risks. The developments that could make them work in an EGS project are discussed.
Using planar fracture models to match treatment pressure and improve understanding of the fracture geometry generation is not a new concept. Knowledge gained from this exercise has historically been used to improve engineered fracture completions and production, and maximize net present value (NPV); however, at some point during the progression from vertical to horizontal wellbores, many within the industry have forgotten about the learnings that can still be gained from current fracture models. Engineered completions have been largely replaced by spreadsheet efficiencies relevant to operations rather than production in too many cases. Some images of unconventional well stimulation treatments portray fractures growing in every direction, forming patterns that resemble shattered windshields, and have often excluded the known physics related to rock geomechanics, reservoir properties, and geology. Excuses to dismiss modeling are numerous and are gaining the reasoning of conformists.
Unconventional resource plays might or might not contain large numbers of natural fractures; but, current fracture models can still be used to gain insight into the fracture geometries being generated. While the development of complex fracture models continues to evolve, the industry can still gain insight to fracture geometry and resulting production using current planar fracture modeling. Caveats to this process are that it requires: Valid measured data to establish model constraints. The engineer to understand the basic physics of how fractures are generated and when (and when not) to twist the "knobs" in the model. The engineer to understand which "knobs" should be used based on real diagnostics information. The actual single well production to be an integral part of the process.
Valid measured data to establish model constraints.
The engineer to understand the basic physics of how fractures are generated and when (and when not) to twist the "knobs" in the model.
The engineer to understand which "knobs" should be used based on real diagnostics information.
The actual single well production to be an integral part of the process.
This paper demonstrates the results of honoring data measurements from a multitude of potential sources, including downhole microseismic data, downhole deformation tiltmeters, offset pressure monitoring, DTS, DAS, diagnostic fracture injection test (DFIT) analysis, injection as well as production data with bottomhole pressure measurements, etc., and the resulting observations and conclusions. Several industry examples are discussed to help frame the vast amount of information possible to help engineers do a better job of including more diagnostics into routine operations to provide additional insight and ultimately result in improved models and completion designs.
This paper is not intended to merely demonstrate the results of the work but to spark an interest in bringing more intense engineering back to fracture stimulation modeling for horizontal completions.
Tian, Changbing (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina) | Lei, Zhengdong (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina) | Jiang, Qingping (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Chang, Tianquan (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Chen, Dongliang (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Lu, Zhiyuan (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Li, Sheng (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company)
Large platforms, long horizontal sections, small well spacings and dense cutting have become economical and effective development means for tight oil reservoirs. Well spacing and fracture design are critical parameters impacting production and Internal rate of return (IRR) of tight oil reservoirs. In order to maximize the total stimulated reservoir area and fracture-controlled reserves, the well spacing and fracture spacing should be small enough. However, in order to minimize the chance of fracture hits caused by offset wells and the overlapping drainage area of a nearby well to avoid Asset spillover, the spacing well should large enough.
Based on minifrac data and microseismic fracture mapping results, a natural/hydraulic fracture network was generated and input into an unstructured-grid-based discrete fracture reservoir simulation model. Its accuracy was calibrated with the well production history. For each group of fracture design and well spacing, well interference was determined by estimating ultimate recovery (EUR) difference between a single well and a middle well among multiple wells. Based on actual information of tight oil developments, the pressure interference were examined by field trail data and well spacing simulations. The real scenarios were selected to study effects of well spacing on EUR and ultimate IRR. Effects of reservoir permeability and fracture half-length on optimal well spacing were also analyzed.
It was found that the decrease in Long-term EURs for different well spacings is a good indicator for well spacing optimization. Based on the reservoir simulation and economic analysis, the maximum IRR of the tight oil reservoir with permeability of 0.23mD can achieved when the well spacing is 260m. Meanwhile, the detailed results were also illustrated to show the effects of fracture half-length, reservoir permeability as well as oil price variation on IRR.
The paper demonstrates an effective method and a workflow to optimize well spacing and fracture treatments design through integrating advanced multi-stage fracture modeling with discrete fracture reservoir simulation in the area of unconventional resource developments. Such optimization studies contribute to minimize operation cost and improve the economy of resource development.
Global deepwater exploration and development activity is on the upswing driven by an anticipated long-term increase in worldwide demand for hydrocarbons. Recent technological innovations have helped the industry to improve the economics and reliability of deepwater projects. Business and technical drivers vary by locations, but all rely on the continuing cost-effectiveness of efficiently designing, drilling and completing wells. Techniques are being adopted that involve advanced interdisciplinary planning and real-time adjustments to deliver highly productive wells. This workshop will have interactive sessions on new technologies, current practices, regional issues and critical challenges related to both drilling and completions in deepwater.
One E&P company has found that implementing and sustaining a portfolio process require technical solutions and application of best practices for three critical elements: production forecasting, project modeling and economic evaluation, and portfolio management and decision making. The objective of this paper is to develop and demonstrate an efficient work flow that will help stakeholders make better decisions in the area of completion planning.
Through data gathering, machine learning, and the use of a supercomputer, a non-profit organization in Texas is seeking to boost oil and gas production on land owned by the states’ two largest university systems. This paper reviews two newly developed novel completion systems that significantly reduce time spent performing multistage stimulation in environments where cost and consequence of failure are high.
Drilling and completion expenditure and activity is projected to show multiyear double-digit growth from 2018–2022 despite a flattening of rig count increases. This paper reports the completion of a two-lateral well in the Williston basin where produced water (PW), filtered but otherwise untreated, was used throughout the slickwater and crosslinked components of approximately 60 hydraulic-fracturing stages.
For thin-oil-rim reservoirs, well placement, well type, well path, and the completion methods must be evaluated with close integration of key reservoir and production-engineering considerations. For thin-oil-rim reservoirs, well placement, type and path, and well-completion methods, should be evaluated with close integration of key reservoir- and production-engineering considerations.