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JPT Technology Minute Poll: To Which of the Top Five UN Sustainability Development Goals Do You Think the Oil and Gas Industry Will Contribute the Most? The papers identified in the article cover sustainable development of oil and gas resources in various aspects. Flaring and emissions challenges have recently made news headlines around the world. The goal of this article is to engage you with this important topic by presenting a selection of recent SPE papers which address these challenges through various approaches. Operators face a dilemma in balancing the need for mud weight (MW) to remain below the fracture gradient to avoid losses, while also providing sufficient density to block influxes into the well. JPT Technology Minute Poll: Which Technology Would You Choose for Offshore Compression?
Several H2S-removal technologies are available, including nonregenerative liquid scavengers (triazine-based), nonregenerative solid-bed absorbents, and the regenerative liquid-reduction/oxidation (redox) process. These technologies remove sulfur from associated gas streams and do not release them to the environment. The nonregenerative technologies are often referred to as scavengers.
An oil facility encompasses the equipment between the oil wells and the pipeline or other transportation system. The purpose of an oil facility is to make the oil ready for sale to the purchaser's standards (maximum allowable water, salt, and other impurities). This article describes the key equipment and functions found in an oil facility. Figure 1 is a block diagram of a simple oil facility. Each of the blocks is described here, except for gas dehydration, which is covered in Gas Facilities.
Some of the technologies, such as mechanical and control devices commonly used in subsea well and manifold systems, are well developed and can be considered off-the-shelf items. Others, such as subsea power-distribution systems, are still in the product development stage. Many of the emerging products are well-proven surface components modified for subsea application. As in any integrated system, a shortcoming in any one of the links will impair the performance of the whole. Successful implementation requires all the skill sets to work seamlessly and with greater than ever attention to QA/QC in components manufacturing, installation, and system integration. A clear understanding of the process and all its parameters is the first step toward a successful design. As in surface facilities, knowledge of the produced fluid properties, rheology, and flow characteristics are critical. Luckily, whether the process is carried out on the surface or a thousand meters subsea, the process is the same. However, effects of the environmental conditions may be more dramatic and detrimental. Fluids with high foaming tendency will complicate the design and may require mechanical or chemical solutions. For subsea applications, a passive mechanical foam-breaking device (such as a low-shear inlet momentum breaker) is preferred over the more costly to install and operate chemical injection systems.
The application of crushed rock analysis for unconventional formation evaluation has become standard in core analysis following its introduction for shale gas volumetrics by Luffel and Guidry (1992). Crushing is used to expedite the extraction, drying, and volumetric measurement processes. Critical assumptions of crushed rock analysis include: all pore space is interconnected, crushing should not create entry into any pores that previously were isolated, and the crushed particles are orders of magnitude larger than the representative pore space. The analytical procedures were established to provide reservoir rock and fluid properties, for which log interpretation methods could be developed to match the core and production results.
This study expands on the effect of crushing on core samples beyond the original Devonian shale scope of the Gas Research Institute, GRI, program. Mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) measurements are incorporated to quantify volumetric and textural changes to the rock fabric from the crushing process. Changes in sample compressibility are also investigated to account for the removal of residual, low compressibility fluids. The objective is to understand potential fundamental changes to the rock to reconcile the crushed, cleaned ambient condition with stressed, subsurface conditions.
Fourteen core samples, at an average frequency of 18’, are selected to represent a variety of lithologies across a 200’ interval of the Wolfcamp A in the Delaware Basin. Each sample was split into three subsamples: one subsample remained intact, one subsample is coarsely crushed to +50-mesh, and the last is crushed and sieved to -20+35-mesh fraction to replicate the particle size common for many crushed rock protocols (Luffel, 1992). All subsamples were cleaned using a sequence of organic solvents and dried at 60°C to remove residual free fluid and interstitial clay bound water (Burger, 2014).
Certain facies showed a higher likelihood for pore alteration with dominant micro-scale pore features flattening, shifting, or re-distributing following the crushing and cleaning process. Mudstone samples experienced increases in compressible pore volume after crushing and extraction as total porosity converged towards GRI helium porosity. The results of this study provide characterization of the connected, effective pore volume using compressibility concepts and comparison to residual fluid volumes. The decision to crush, and the degree of crushing if so, should consider the representative pore sizes of each facies.
Pathak, Varun (Computer Modelling Group Ltd.) | Mirzabozorg, Arash (Computer Modelling Group Ltd.) | Zuloaga, Pavel (Pluspetrol Peru Corp.) | Dorival Vargas, Jose Miguel (Pluspetrol Peru Corp.) | Klix, Belen (Pluspetrol)
Camisea asset is possibly the most important mega gas asset in South America, and constitutes for more than 90% of Peru’s gas production. The asset consists of several fields with varying degrees of subsurface complexities, multiple fluid types ranging from very lean to very rich gas condensate. The combined production is routed to gas processing plant via a network of pipelines. The entire development is in an environmentally sensitive area and adds to the complexity of the surface network design process. For these reasons, performing integrated production systems simulations is essential for designing the surface network with appropriate fidelities for each component of the IPSM.
In current work, a complex integrated production system was developed for Block A of the asset. It is a 2-field system with complex fluid behavior. The various fluids blend in the well tubings, as well in the combined surface network. The produced gas is treated in the plant for liquid extraction, and dry gas is routed for sales and re-injection. For all this work, a new multi-fidelity IPSM tool was used in both implicit as well as explicit coupling mode.
This was achieved by doing both implicit as well as explicit coupling of the reservoir simulation models with well models and surface network model. As a result of this work, a reliable long-term production forecast of the field could be performed. Additionally, the pipe design and network constraints could be evaluated and compression needs variation with time could be assessed. Lastly, with the use of a fit-for-purpose fidelity level for any IPSM component, more efficient and reliable forecasts could be readily generated.
A comparison between implicit and explicit coupling of IPSM components is generally missing from the available literature. This study fills in this gap by providing the option to do the two couplings using a single simulation tool, thus providing a consistent comparison. In addition to the various long-term production forecasts, the benefits and drawbacks of the two coupling approaches has been presented in this paper.
This course covers all the relevant subjects needed to understand the structural mechanics of downhole tubulars. Discussions begin with the fundamental design principles and progresses through materials, performance, loads and design. Participants will also learn to calculate tension, compression, burst collapse, yield and threshold strength. This intensive hands-on course will give you the proficiency and confidence you need to design safe and cost-effective casing and tubing strings. This course is for drilling and completion engineers, and drilling supervisors who want additional insight into casing and tubing design.