Gelman, Andriy (Schlumberger) | Maeso, Carlos (Schlumberger) | Godet, Vincent (Schlumberger) | Padin, Exequiel (Schlumberger) | Tarrius, Mathieu (Schlumberger) | Sun, Yong (Schlumberger) | Auchere, Jean-Christophe (Schlumberger) | A, Adrian (Schlumberger) | Wibowo, Vera (Schlumberger) | Shrivastava, Chandramani (Schlumberger)
This paper presents a novel borehole image compression algorithm for real-time (RT) logging while drilling (LWD). The compression scheme is designed to optimize the critical information required for RT decision making at low telemetry bandwidths. In the proposed algorithm we estimate the structure of the image (i.e. the amplitude and phase shift of the dip) and modify the encoding dictionary based on the features. The resulting dictionary resembles sinusoidal features, thus optimizing the reconstruction of bedding or other planar features in deviated wells. The dictionary is designed using a modified version of the 2D discrete wavelet transform (DWT). This approach has a low encoding complexity and supports the integration of directional information into the transform. Since feature estimation is a challenging step, we use a classifier to identify when directional information should be added to the transform or whether a conventional implementation is used. The algorithm has been implemented in both oil-and water-based mud LWD imager tools, where the low encoding complexity has facilitated the implementation in legacy tools with limited computation resources. We present field test results comparing the borehole images from RT and recorded mode (RM) data from one of the industry's first RT LWD resistivity images obtained from a well drilled using oil-based mud.
Usop, Mohammad Zulfiqar (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Suggust, Alister Albert (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Mohammad Razali, Abdullah (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Zamzuri, Dzulfahmi (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | M. Khalil, M. Idraki (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Hatta, M. Zulqarnain (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Khalid, Aizuddin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Hasan Azhari, Muhammad (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Jamel, Delwistiel (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Ting Yeong Ye, Diana (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Abdulhadi, Muhammad (Dialog Berhad) | Awang Pon, M Zaim (Dialog Berhad)
Reservoir G-4, a depleted reservoir in field B had been producing from 1992 to 2015 with a recovery factor of 30% before the production was stopped due to low reservoir pressure. Due to the huge inplace volume. A secondary recovery screening was conducted and gas injection was identified as the most suitable solution to revive G-4 reservoir due to its low cost impact of 0.4 Mil. USD whilst managing to deliver the same results as other solutions (i.e. Water injection & Water Dumpflood).
The project had utilized existing facilities in field B including a gas compressor. The project required only minor surface modification to re-route gas into the tubing of injection well BG-03. From simulation results, a continuous injection of 5 MMscf/d will increase the reservoir pressure by 150 psia in 9 months, with incremental potential reserves of atleast 5.0 MMstb from the benefitter wells, BG-02 & as well as incoming infill wells BG-14 & BG-15. It is also envisaged that with future development of additional infill wells, the recovery factor will be increased up to 60%.
In term of gas management, field B is able to deliver additional 15 MMscf/d post petroleum operation reduction (i.e. Fuel Gas, Instrument Gas & Gas lift). With the initiation of gas injection, the project had managed to utilize and optimize 33% of additional gas production for reservoir rejuvenation purposes.
The paper provides valuable insight into the case study and lesson learned of maximizing oil recovery through gas injection with minimal cost incurred. The approach is highly recommended to maximize oil recovery especially in mature fields with similar reservoir conditions and production facilities.
Recovery and valorization of wasted gas associated to methane processing (i.e. leakages from rotating equipment and flared gas) has usually been avoided due to the inherently limited amount of gas of these streams. Moreover, the technical complexities are further enhanced when applied to aging infrastructures and old compression unit designs, making the solution complex and less cost-effective.
However, emission control regulation is progressively limiting the atmospheric release of gases from the hydrocarbon production and processing. These requirements have triggered the development of new technical solutions to limit even small gas streams typically neglected in the past. Typical examples of small leakages tolerated in gas processing are associated with the Dry Gas Seals (DGS) primary vents. The limited amount of gas released did not justify a recovery system, leaving flaring as the only viable option.
In this paper, the technical solutions for compressor DGS primary vent recovery are presented, with further discussion on the integration into the gas process. Financial sustainability of the solutions is also presented, with the analysis of two selected cases. The presented solutions are designed to reflect the positive impact of wasted gas reduction, contributing to reaching environmental sustainability targets in oil and gas.
Gao, Wenkai (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Limited) | Liu, Ke (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Limited) | Jia, Hengtian (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Limited) | Hong, Difeng (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Limited) | Teng, Xinmiao (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Limited)
The problem of high temperature and the challenge to the existing downhole equipments are becoming increasingly prominent, where the drilling depth is severely restricted. The conventional measurement while drilling tools with common electronics will experience very high failure rates at these conditions. One of the solutions is called the active cooling technology, which can transfer the heat from electronics system to downhole environment. By this way, the temperature control of downhole instrument circuit system is realized. The active cooling technology is expounded in this paper, expecially about the principles and development status of each system. After evaluating and analyzing the characteristics of this technology, the function of heat transfer and constituent elements for the cooling system are summarized. The study from this work demonstrates the future work for downhole cooling technology: large refrigeration capacity, small size, strong adaptability and modularization.
Statoil’s board of directors proposed to change the name of the company to Equinor as of 16 March. The name change is intended to support the company’s strategy and development as a broad energy company. Aggressive Cost-Cutting: Is it Sustainable? Onshore development is increasing production, while investors demand greater operational efficiencies. Operators and service companies are striving to strike the balance between fiscal discipline and growing their production.
The reciprocating compression division manufactures and services compression and engine systems that are used in a variety of applications, including the transmission of natural gas across domestic and international pipelines. Pioneer shut in 8,000 BOE/D production in its West Panhandle field in Texas on 6 March due to a compression station fire. Planning to use idle compressors, production is expected to restart later this month or in early April. As compressor stations are added to the natural gas gathering and transmission networks, the potential noise issues are coming under increasing public scrutiny at the same time as regulations are being rolled back.
The reciprocating compression division manufactures and services compression and engine systems that are used in a variety of applications, including the transmission of natural gas across domestic and international pipelines. New analysis from Rystad Energy shows service companies are beginning to raise prices after seeing a significant drop following the oil price downturn. Pricing power is projected to keep rising in 2020 as the service industry sees more demand across the supply chain. Drones will be just one of the tools that the service company uses in its drive toward net-zero carbon emissions. Venture Global LNG awarded the EPIC contract for its Calcasieu Pass LNG export facility to Kiewit.
The reciprocating compression division manufactures and services compression and engine systems that are used in a variety of applications, including the transmission of natural gas across domestic and international pipelines. New analysis from Rystad Energy shows service companies are beginning to raise prices after seeing a significant drop following the oil price downturn. Pricing power is projected to keep rising in 2020 as the service industry sees more demand across the supply chain. The facility will serve as a hub to support customers and projects in the Angola and Southern Africa region. The Golden Pass LNG export project got the go-ahead for a $1-billion liquefaction development.
Reciprocating compressors are positive displacement machines in which the compressing and displacing element is a piston having a reciprocating motion within a cylinder. The high-speed category also is referred to as "separable," and the low-speed category also is known as "integral." The American Petroleum Institute (API) has produced two industry standards, API Standard 11P and API Standard 618, which are frequently employed to govern the design and manufacture of reciprocating compressors. The term "separable" is used because this category of reciprocating compressors is separate from its driver. Either an engine or an electric motor usually drives a separable compressor. Often a gearbox is required in the compression train. Operating speed is typically between 900 and 1,800 rpm. Separable units are skid mounted and self-contained. They are easy to install, offer a relatively small initial cost, are easily moved to different sites, and are available in sizes appropriate for field gathering--both onshore and offshore. However, separable compressors have higher maintenance costs than integral compressors. Figure 1 is a cross section of a typical separable compressor. Figure 1 shows a separable engine-driven compressor package.
In-situ combustion requires standard field equipment for oil production, but with particular attention to air compression, ignition, well design, completion, and production practices. Air-compression systems are critical to the success of any in-situ combustion field project. Past failures often can be traced to poor compressor design, faulty maintenance, or operating mistakes. See Compressors for a detailed discussion of compressors and sizing considerations. Other discussions are available in Sarathi.