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Bentonite is not typically used as the primary fluid-loss agent in normal-density slurries. In low-density slurries, where higher concentrations can be used, it may provide sufficient fluid-loss control (400 to 700 cm 3 /30 min) for safe placement in noncritical well applications. Fluid-loss control, obtained through the use of bentonite, is achieved by the reduction of filter-cake permeability by pore-throat bridging. Microsilica imparts a degree of fluid-loss control to cement slurries because of its small particle size of less than 5 microns. The small particles reduce the pore-throat volume within the cement matrix through a tighter packing arrangement, resulting in a reduction of filter-cake permeability.
Dispersants, also known as friction reducers, are used extensively in cement slurries to improve the rheological properties that relate to the flow behavior of the slurry. Dispersants are used primarily to lower the frictional pressures of cement slurries while they are being pumped into the well. Converting frictional pressure of a slurry, during pumping, reduces the pumping rate necessary to obtain turbulent flow for specific well conditions, reduces surface pumping pressures and horsepower required to pump the cement into the well, and reduces pressures exerted on weak formations, possibly preventing circulation losses. Another advantage of dispersants is that they provide slurries with high solids-to-water ratios that have good rheological properties. This factor has been used in designing high-density slurries up to approximately 17 lbm/gal without the need for a weighting additive.
When determining a slurry's characteristics and performance, these testing procedures are recommended: The methods of testing cement for downhole application are based on performance testing. Testing methods are usually performed according to API specifications, though specifically designed and engineered equipment or tests are also used. The choice of additives and testing criteria is dictated primarily by the specific parameters of the well to be cemented. Performance testing has proven to be the most effective in establishing how a slurry will behave under specific well conditions. There is no direct means of predicting cement performance from the properties of cement, and no technique has yet been established that would correlate cement composition and cement/additive interaction with performance.
Accelerators speed up or shorten the reaction time required for a cement slurry to become a hardened mass. In the case of oilfield cement slurries, this indicates a reduction in thickening time and/or an increase in the rate of compressive-strength development of the slurry. Acceleration is particularly beneficial in cases where a low-density (e.g., high-water-content) cement slurry is required or where low-temperature formations are encountered. Of the chloride salts, CaCl2 is the most widely used, and in most applications, it is also the most economical. The exception is when water-soluble polymers such as fluid-loss-control agents are used.
Remedial cementing requires as much technical, engineering, and operational experience, as primary cementing but is often done when wellbore conditions are unknown or out of control, and when wasted rig time and escalating costs force poor decisions and high risk. Squeeze cementing is a "correction" process that is usually only necessary to correct a problem in the wellbore. Before using a squeeze application, a series of decisions must be made to determine (1) if a problem exists, (2) the magnitude of the problem, (3) if squeeze cementing will correct it, (4) the risk factors present, and (5) if economics will support it. Most squeeze applications are unnecessary because they result from poor primary-cement-job evaluations or job diagnostics. Squeeze cementing is a dehydration process.
This article discusses several techniques used for hydrocarbon analysis during mud logging. These tools characterize the reservoir fluids that have become entrained in the drilling fluid as it is returned to the surface. The total gas analyzer (TGA), also referred to as the total hydrocarbon analyzer (THA), measures the total amount of gas, typically the total amount of combustible gas. The usual unit of TGA measurement is total methane equivalents (TME), which is essentially the BTU content of the gas extracted from the drilling fluid, expressed as that which would be obtained from an equivalent concentration of pure methane in air. The TGA, while giving an undifferentiated indication of gas entrained in the drilling fluid, has the advantage of operating in a continuous mode.
Introduction The drilling-fluid system--commonly known as the "mud system"--is the single component of the well-construction process that remains in contact with the wellbore throughout the entire drilling operation. Drilling-fluid systems are designed and formulated to perform efficiently under expected wellbore conditions. Advances in drilling-fluid technology have made it possible to implement a cost-effective, fit-for-purpose system for each interval in the well-construction process. The active drilling-fluid system comprises a volume of fluid that is pumped with specially designed mud pumps from the surface pits, through the drillstring exiting at the bit, up the annular space in the wellbore, and back to the surface for solids removal and maintenance treatments as needed. The capacity of the surface system usually is determined by the rig size, and rig selection is determined by the well design. For example, the active drilling-fluid volume on a deepwater well might be several ...
In situations in which two different waters are being mixed, it is desirable to measure the amounts of each in the mixed stream. If the capability exists, it is desirable to look at each constituent to see if it undergoes any phenomenon other than simple mixing. This can be a powerful technique for detecting water/rock reactions that can lead to formation damage. The fundamental concept is that mixing two waters should result in the volume-weighted average of each constituent of the two original waters, unless some chemical or biological reaction occurred. This is essentially similar in appearance to a binary phase diagram, with the endpoints of the line defined by the concentrations of the constituent in each of the water streams being mixed.
Contamination of drilling fluids with drilled cuttings is an unavoidable consequence of successful drilling operations. If the drilling fluid does not carry cuttings and cavings to the surface, the rig either is not "making hole" or soon will be stuck in the hole it is making. The drill cuttings that are separated from the drilling fluid on the surface by the soldis control equipment and some quantity of unrecoverable or economically unwanted drilling fluid are a major source of drilling waste. Drilled and formation solids that are sized smaller than can be removed by the solids control equipment are often reported as drill solids. Some quantitiy of drill solids will accumulate in the drilling fluid and must be removed by the solids control equipment or reduced in concentration by dilution.
Abstract This work presents a matrix acidizing formulation which comprises a salt of monochloroacetic acid giving a delayed acidification and a chelating agent to prevent precipitation of a calcium salt. Results of dissolution capacity, core flood test and corrosion inhibition are presented and are compared to performance of 15 wt% emulsified HCl. Dissolution capacity tests were performed in a stirred reactor at atmospheric pressure using equimolar amounts of the crushed limestone and dolomites. Four different chelating agents were added to test the calcium ion sequestering power. Corrosion tests were executed using an autoclave reactor under nitrogen atmosphere at 10 barg. Core flood tests were performed to simulate carbonate matrix stimulation using limestone cores. It was found that the half-life time of the hydrolysis reaction is 77 min at a temperature of 100 °C. Sodium gluconate and the sodium salt of D-glucoheptonic acid were identified to successfully prevent the precipitation of the reaction product calcium glycolate at a temperature of 40 °C. Computed Tomography (CT) scans of the treated cores at optimum injection rate showed a single wormhole formed. At 150 °C an optimum injection rate of 1 ml/min was found which corresponds to a minimum PVBT of 6. In addition, no face dissolution was observed after coreflooding. Furthermore, the corrosion rates of different metallurgies (L80 and J55) were measured which are significantly less than data reported in literature for 15wt% emulsified HCl. The novelty of this formulation is that it slowly releases an organic acid in the well allowing deeper penetration in the formation and sodium gluconate prevents precipitation of the reaction product. The corrosivity of this formulation is relatively low saving maintenance costs to installations and pipe work. The active ingredient in the formulation is a solid, allowing onsite preparation of the acidizing fluid.