Digital technologies serve as a primary theme of this year’s group, with a few environmentally conscious firms included in the mix. The well will immediately be brought on production and is expected to flow at more than 100 MMscf/D of gas and 3,000 B/D of associated condensate, the company said. The main goal of production logging is to evaluate the well or reservoir performance. The shale sector is studying the results of a 23-well experiment in the southeastern corner of New Mexico to learn what the wider implications might be. The shale sector is making moves to consolidate amid investor pressure to increase cash flow.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) United Hydrocarbon International finished drilling the Belanga North-1 exploration well located in Doba basin in southern Chad. The well was drilled to a total depth of 1392 m, and encountered three oil-bearing sand intervals--two in the targeted Upper Cretaceous "YO" sands and one in an untested shallower sand. United Hydrocarbon (100%) is the operator. Asia Pacific China National Offshore Oil Corporation discovered natural gas in the Qiongdongan basin, South China Sea. Well Lingshui 17-2--located in the east Lingshui sag portion of the basin at an average water depth of 1450 m--was drilled and completed to a depth of 3510 m. Lingshui 17-2 encountered a gas reservoir with a total thickness of approximately 55 m. Statoil Australia Theta has drilled and completed the Oz-Alpha 1 exploration well in the southern Georgina basin in the Northern Territory, Australia.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Eni discovered up to 250 million bbl of light oil in the Ndungu exploration prospect in Block 15/06 offshore Angola. A well in 1076 m of water reached TD of 4050 m and proved a single oil column of approximately 65 m with 45 m of net pay of 35 API oil. Well results indicate production capacity in excess of 10,000 B/D. Eni operates Block 15/06 with 36.8421% Joint venture partners are Sonangol P&P (36.8421%) and SSI Fifteen (26.3158%). Eni discovered gas and condensate on the Akoma prospect in CTP-Block 4 offshore Ghana. The Akoma-1X exploration well was drilled in 350 m of water approximately 50 km offshore and 12 km northwest of the FPSO John Agyekum Kufuor.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Sonangol's deepwater Orca-1 well encountered oil in the presalt layer of Block 20/11 in the Cuanza basin offshore Angola. The well reached a measured depth of 12,703 ft. Initial well tests saw flow rates of 16.3 MMcm/D of gas and 3,700 BOPD. Cobalt International Energy (40%) is the operator, with partners Sonangol Research and Production (30%) and BP Exploration Angola (30%). Asia Pacific Premier Oil's Kuda Laut-1 well in Indonesia's Tuna production sharing contract has encountered 183 net ft of oil-bearing reservoir and 327 net ft of gas-bearing reservoir. Following evaluation operations, the well will be sidetracked to drill the Singa Laut prospect in an adjacent fault block. Premier is the operator (65%), with partner Mitsui Oil Exploration Company (35%).
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Eni discovered gas and condensate in the Nkala Marine prospect offshore Congo. The discovery could hold from 250 MMBOE to 350 million MMBOE in place, the company said. In a production test, the Nkala Marine 1 discovery well in the Marine XII block yielded more than 10 MMcf/D of gas and condensate. Eni is the operator with a 65% interest in the block. The remaining shares are held by New Age (25%) and Societé Nationale des Pétroles du Congo (SNPC) (10%). Sonangol and Total will break ground on a deepwater oil pumping project that will increase Angola's production by more than 30,000 B/D.
Relative permeability and capillary pressure defines relative permeabilities as dimensionless functions of saturation with values generally ranging between 0 and 1. Relative permeability is important for estimating the flow of reservoir fluids. The semilog scale of Figure 1 is convenient for reading the relative permeabilities less than 0.05. Although the curves are labeled "gas" and "oil" in these figures, the phase identity of a curve can be deduced without the labels. For example, the relative permeability that increases in the direction of increasing oil saturation must be the oil relative permeability.
Hydrocarbons occur in a variety of conditions, in different phases, and with widely varying properties, This page will cover the important geophysical properties of pore fluids. Pore fluids are fluids that occupy pore spaces in a soil or rock. Figure 1 shows schematically the relation among the different mixtures. In contrast, if we restrict the temperatures and pressures to those typical of reservoirs, we could again move in this phase "space" by changing compositions. Velocities and densities will be high (close to water) for heavy "black" oils to the left of the figure and decrease dramatically as we move right toward lighter compounds.
Natural petroleum gases contain varying amounts of different (primarily alkane) hydrocarbon compounds and one or more inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen (N2), and water. A retrograde-condensate fluid has a phase envelope such that reservoir temperature lies between the critical temperature and the cricondentherm (Figure 1.1). As a result, a liquid phase will form in the reservoir as pressure declines, and the amount and gravity of produced liquids will change with time. Condensate liquids are generally "water white" or light in color (brown, orange, or greenish), with gravities typically between 40 and 60 API. Producing-liquid yields can be as high as 300 STB/MMscf. McCain suggests that when yields are below approximately 20 STB/MMscf, even though phase-behavior considerations may show retrograde behavior, the amount of liquid dropout in the reservoir is insignificant. The primary difficulties in producing condensate reservoirs are as follows: (a) liquid deposition near the wellbore causes a decrease in gas deliverability that can approach 100% in a reservoir with less than 50-md permeability, and (b) a large amount of the most valuable hydrocarbon components is left in the reservoir rather than produced. In a wet-gas reservoir, temperature is higher than the cricondentherm (Figure 1.2). Therefore, a liquid phase never forms in the reservoir. Considerable liquid can still form (condense) at surface conditions or even in the wellbore. The term "condensate" is often applied to any light hydrocarbon liquid produced from a gas well. However, the term "condensate reservoir" should be applied only to situations in which condensate is actually formed in the reservoir because of retrograde behavior. Wet-gas reservoirs can always be treated as containing single-phase gas in the reservoir, while retrograde-condensate reservoirs may not. Wet-gas reservoirs generally produce liquids with gravities similar to those for retrograde condensates, but with yields less than approximately 20 STB/MMscf. In a dry-gas reservoir, the cricondentherm is much lower than the reservoir temperature (Figure 1.3), resulting in little or no liquid production at the surface. A somewhat arbitrary cutoff liquid yield of 10 STB/MMscf is sometimes used to distinguish dry-gas reservoirs. While the difference between retrograde-condensate and wet gases is notable, there is much less distinction between wet and dry gases. For both wet and dry gases, reservoir engineering calculations are based on a single-phase reservoir gas.
Natural petroleum gases contain varying amounts of different (primarily alkane) hydrocarbon compounds and one or more inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen (N2), and water. Characterizing, measuring, and correlating the physical properties of natural gases must take into account this variety of constituents. A dry-gas reservoir is defined as producing a single composition of gas that is constant in the reservoir, wellbore, and lease-separation equipment throughout the life of a field. Some liquids may be recovered by processing in a gas plant. Condensate will form either while flowing to the surface or in lease-separation equipment.